Book details Author: Howard Ozmon Pages: pages Publisher: Merrill Language: English ISBN ISBN [DOWNLOAD] [PDF] Words Their Way: Word Sorts for Within Word Pattern Spellers [DOWNLOAD] [PDF] Power Speed Endurance: A Skill. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 76,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . Philosophical Foundations of Education - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text Philosophy seeks to understand whether man is free or within bondage.
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Read "Philosophical Foundation of Education % Pure Adrenaline" by Dr. Wasim Ahmad Khan available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off. Our students must be free from despair and negative attitude. They 1. UNIT-I. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHILOSOPHY AND EDUCATION. .. are constantly influenced by ideas that have come down to us in the traditions of society. Philosophical foundations of education by Howard A. Ozman, Howard Ozmon, , 1 edition of Philosophical foundations of education found in the catalog. Download ebook for print-disabled Download Protected DAISY.
Preface The present work Philosophical Foundations of Education, among several books the subject, claims to be most comprehensive yet to the point analysis and description of the subject in the Indian context. It covers the syllabi of almost all the Indian universities on the subject in simple and lucid language drawing examples from the Indian environment. This book lays down the basic concepts of philosophical foundations of education required to be understood by every reader—students, scholars, teachers and specialists of the subject. Most of the Indian writers on the subject have not touched the subject in totality. They have confined their works only to Naturalism, Idealism, Realism and Pragmatism and some of them only have taken Modern Humanism as a philosophical concept for discussing the philosophical foundations of education. Though some of the Indian writer have mentioned 'Progressive Education' and 'New Tendencies and Education' distinctively but that too without mentioning philosophical foundations of these 'New Tendencies'.
Ozmon does a very creditable job of covering different philosophical movements. I was impressed in particular by the coverage of behaviorism and existentialism Ozmon made them understandable and more appealing than I was expecting. The not-so-good stuff: For a ninth edition of a textbook, there are still some frustrating errors in organization sections that change topic from the section heading, mention of four philosophers to cover when only three are then covered.
Jul 28, Flash Mitchell English added it. This was my textbook for a graduate-level education class, but an undergrad could handle it. The book is loaded with information, and it's arranged practically and easy to understand. Parts of each chapter, though, are very repetitive. Reiny rated it liked it Mar 12, Hikari Imai rated it really liked it Apr 13, Matt rated it really liked it Dec 20, Linda rated it it was amazing Aug 09, Sevde rated it really liked it Mar 12, Michael rated it really liked it May 18, Desmond rated it it was ok Sep 17, Paulkmthein rated it did not like it Jan 20, Asma rated it it was amazing Aug 01, Angela Kitchin rated it really liked it Jul 14, Cinthia Walker rated it it was amazing Jul 15, Melinda L Sales rated it liked it Dec 21, Kapdee Kumar rated it it was amazing May 10, Nur Fatin Aliyya Azizan rated it liked it Feb 19, Sharon rated it it was amazing Dec 14, John Lawless rated it liked it Jan 27, Berkley rated it really liked it Jan 01, Maryann rated it really liked it Jul 10, Angela Dye rated it really liked it Apr 01, Katie Evans rated it liked it Oct 11, Tony Greaves rated it it was amazing Jan 15, Michelle Lawson rated it it was amazing Feb 26, In this process he comes to know new things which develop his power of adjustment.
Our real study. Our concern.
It is unphilosophical to construct a science out of a few of the agencies by which the phenomena are determined. Mill when he writes in 'Logic': It is noteworthy that the great educators like Plato. We need only cite Plato's idealism and his cultural scheme of education. Spencer's Hedonism and his discipline by natural consequences.
Education as Self-activity. Thus education should be regarded as adjustment.
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This connection likewise suggests that the benefit may have been mutual. But adjustment is a lifelong process. We shall discuss below the interdependence of philosophy and education. Fitche in his Sixth Address to the German people says. Dewey and Russell have also been great philosophers. Man has an amazing propensity to be dissatisfied with things as they are. We must. The Psychological Approach. Empiricism in Philosophy and Encyclopaedism in education. Education as Adjustment.
The child is helpless at birth. But this is a wrong belief. Philosophy and Textbooks and so on. Philosophy and Curriculum. Education translates these principles and ideas into practice. Through analysis and classification these are divided into goals to be achieved by the process of education. In other words.
Their philosophical treatises have been important guide books for educational planning and determination of educational aims for children of the world. Adams has rightly said—"Education is the dynamic side of philosophy. Herbart holds the same opinion—"Education has no time to make holiday till all the philosophical questions are once for all cleared up.
We are discussing below this interdependency in some greater details. In this way. Philosophy acquaints us with values in life and education tells us how these values can be realised.
Once again it will be better to recollect the saying of Ross that—"Philosophy and education are like the sides of the same coin. Without the help of philosopher. Philosophy and Methods of teaching.
Although few formulate it. Philosophy is the thought or plan side and education is the application or practical side. Spencer has rightly remarked—"True education is practicable only by a true philosophy". Separation between the two is not possible on any account. Both philosophy and education are intimately and integrally connected with each other.
Aurobindo Ghosh and others who were great philosophers of their times have also talked about education. Education is dependent of Philosophy due to following reasons: Philosophy determines the goal of life and also provides suitable and effective guidance and supervision for education to achieve that goal. Philosophy and Disciplines. So close are these two. Without proper guidance and supervision. It is the 21 philosophy. That is why so much. Philosophy is dependent on education due to following reasons: Philosophy formulates what it conceives to be the end of life.
Philosophy determines the aim of life and by analysis lays down the principles to be followed for achieving the set aims. As a result. We must have an aim of education for giving direction to various educative efforts. It should be remembered that Sparta was under a constant attack by the enemies. It was expected of education to demolish all blind beliefs and mechanical rituals.
Athens and India. In the following lines more light is being thrown on this close relationship as borne by history: In ancient India. After Sparta. These values are nothing but a philosophy of education which in the ultimate analysis is a philosophy of life. The chief aims of Muslim education in India were: Education was to develop critical insight and reasonableness in all beliefs and activities. In Athens. Development of morality. In these days Islam and Christianity were busy with proselytisation programmes in a very aggressive manner.
Building of character. Thus we cannot do without a philosophical foundation of education. The aim of life was to perform all worldly duties and then achieve salvation from worldly ties of rebirth. Romans were very conscious of their rights and duties and as such Roman education catered to the needs of fullest development of children in all spheres of human activity. The aim of education is related with the aim of life. Extension of Islamic kingdoms.
Herbart advocated the aim of education to be the. Achievement of material wellbeing. Spread of education among Muslims. Philosophy is the main guide towards which we have to look at points of conflicts in the educational endeavour. Philosophy gives meaning to all that is done in an educational process. Philosophy of Locke fell from prominence and it came to be argued that education should develop the inherent qualities. People asserted their right to know the truth themselves and did not believe blindly in the rituals and ceremonies.
Propagation of Islam. In Europe Reformation and Renaissance criticised the infallibility of Catholism. One can note here that with a change in the philosophy of life aims of education in Athens were quite different to those of Rome and Sparta.
Weakness of body was condemned as vice 23 and death in the service of the state was considered as the highest virtue. Propagation of Shariyat. To achieve this aim.
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Education became child-centred and according to famous educationist Pestalozzi the aim of education was declared to develop the personality of the child to the fullest extent.
Aims of life changed from time to time and so the aims of education also changed accordingly. In the first chapter of his work on Education Spencer asserts that in the determination of the curriculum "our first step must obviously be to classify.
Ross rightly says: As such. On the contrary. During the British rule in India the purpose of education was to prepare native clerks to run the administrative machinery efficiently. Lodge in "Philosophy of Education" writes: The pragmatists emphasise the principle of utility as the main criteria for determining the nature of curriculum. After the attainment of independence in As times went by. The idealists. But immediately we seek to fix the relative value of subjects. Utility is the motto of all activities and experiences.
Thus J. They emphasise the importance of subjects that fall within the range of natural science. In England and America where democratic values prevail. He fixes the relative value of subjects in order of their importance. Stanley and Shores speak of moral authority as one of the chief guides of curriculum building. The experiences of the human race as epitomed in sciences and humanities should provide the primary consideration in deciding a curriculum. The idealist does not emphasise one subject in preference to another.
They say that 'moral authority is derived from fundamental principles of right and wrong. The industrial revolution had its impact on education. They want to concentrate on realities of life.
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According to the naturalists. In America the philosophy of pragmatism is in vogue. According to Spencer. Thus Bode in "Modem Educational Theories". Russia and China exploit education as an instrument of indoctrination of enforced obedience and rigid discipline.
The chief aim is to develop fully the individuality of the child. At present.
This has influenced education to be really practical useful and purposive. In countries where the sentient of democracy is strong. The idealist's point of view is subjective. The surprising and welcome interest and activity recently manifested in the problem of the curriculum is at present arrested for the want of a philosophical criterion.
Briggs in discussing Curriculum Problems says: It is the textbook whose contents are to be imparted in conformity with the aim of education. He is a philosopher also. He must keep in mind that his own beliefs. The working of the chosen curriculum depends on the textbook.
Really speaking. For this. We must have some ideals and standards for guiding us in the selection of textbooks. Only such teachers imbued with high ideals. The reason they have not been prepared and 27 accepted in practice is the same as that for slow progress in curriculum revision: In order to keep this institution healthy and serviceable there must be a philosophy in order to determine its nature and contents.
He must also be well-conscious of national needs in all spheres and plan his teaching activities to fulfil those needs. It is not without significance that almost the best plea ever made for practical work in schools was penned by one of the most idealistic of educational philosophers.
The same is true of textbooks as well. But to dispense with textbook is nothing short of folly. It indicates. The above discussion indicates that the problem of curriculum construction is philosophical in terms of the philosophical beliefs held by a group of people. Hence the need for a philosophical foundation of education can not be over-emphasised. The outstanding problem in educational method at the present time is the extent to which.
Non-intervention is justified for two quite different reasons. Montessori takes the environmentalist standpoint. Kilpatrick's use of the term "Philosophy of Method" shows that there is a close relation between educational method and philosophy.
Method is a means by which a contact is developed between the student and the subject matter. Having a common origin in the natural mind. We have already instanced the dependence of discipline by natural consequences on a hedonistic ethics and a naturalistic metaphysics. Along with political despotism. But in absence of a definite aim of education or an adequate philosophy of life. The choice of methods of teaching depends on a philosophy. Naturalism stands for unhampered freedom for the child..
Teachers who assume that they can afford to ignore philosophy. It emphasises individual assertion as against social co operation. The general relationship was well expressed by Spencer in the following passage in 'Education': Realism wants to discipline the student into objectivity. Teachers who think that they can do without a philosophy of life render their methods of teaching ineffective. B Philosophy and the Curriculum. B Philosophy and Discipline.
Thus we see that the problem of discipline is closely related with philosophy. We must have a philosophy of life and of education. Write a note on the Interdependence of philosophy and Education. Pragmatism does not believe in the employment of external discipline as a means for the performance of school task.
Write short notes on the following: A Philosophy and Method of Teaching. In the subsequent chapters of this second part of the book we shall very briefly deal with the different schools of philosophy in education and the standpoints of some great educators. With the help of such a discipline. The discussion in the following pages is only intended to show how people interested in education have thought over the various educational problems and issues.
It gives complete freedom to the child and stresses the educational value of interest which is of empirical. Thus our contention that there is a need for a philosophical foundation of education will be further supported.
It makes a difference to his own interest and enthusiasm. These chapters will indicate the indispensability of philosophy to education and will show how great educators tried to base their educational ideas on their consistent 31 philosophies. Write a note on nature and functions of philosophy. Miller in Education for the Needs of Life p. A Philosophy and Aims of Education. C Philosophy and Textbooks. Those who speak of having no philosophy of life.
A Meaning of Education in India. It makes a profound difference to the work of the instructor whether his philosophy of life is crassly materialistic or whether it is idealistic enough to make him believe in the imperishability of moral and spiritual values. Philosophy seems to stand still. C Analytical meaning of Education.
Hereunder we attempt to understand basic aspects of philosophy. We want to be whole. Yet this is only because philosophy accepts the hard and hazardous task of dealing with problems not yet open to the methods of science—problems like good and evil.
Every science begins as philosophy and ends as art. Logic is the study of ideal method in thought and research: Science is the captured territory. Ethics is the study of ideal conduct. Philosophy is a hypothetical interpretation of the unknown as in metaphysics.
Esthetics is the study of ideal form. Politics is the study of ideal social organisation it is not. B Synthesised concept of Modern Education. The most universal concepts of human reason. And lastly.
Thus etymologically speaking. Metaphysics means "afterphysics". Berkeley and Hume. But he also fights shy of all metaphysics in the ultimate sense. To be inexact is both a weakness as well as the strength of metaphysics.
This was a great corrective to rationalistic extreme and yet by confining metaphysics to mere sense experience. To achieve this purpose. Thus definition is an explanation of the exact meaning of the concept. The philosopher in his synoptic vision would only point out the broad and general characteristic of a particular concept.
As a general rule. The necessity of basing philosophy on experience was loudly proclaimed by the opposite school of empiricists represented by Locke. To define a concept is to fix its bounds or limits. In this chapter. The rationalists.
Only the metaphysics of Nature and metaphysics of Knowledge is possible. Besides logical analysis. Kant combines the Baconian idea of the extension of knowledge with the Cartesian idea of certainty. But metaphysics with thought as its instrument should never dream of being exact like mathematics since thought.
Locke pointed out that for its content the form and instrument of metaphysics is dependent on experience. It is also the first science. This is obvious. The philosopher is a lover to knowledge and never a sole possessor of it. The object of philosophy.
Hume denied the supremacy of Reason. This attempt at rationalisation or mathematisation of philosophy sought to make it more exact. To be itself. But Ultimate Reality. According to John Dewey.
All sorts of arguments have been advanced to support widely divergent views of Reality. It must be based on Real experiences. Contemporary thought witnesses a chaos in the field of Metaphysics.
The purpose of Nature beneath all this burning cauldron of ideologies. He suggests that by mutual comparison and elimination of peculiarities. For with it we feel ourselves no longer isolated in humanity. It should synthesise value and existence. While some philosophers have laid emphasis on psychological facts. All kinds of reactions are raisin. To quote Sri Aurobindo. Thus philosophy is the knowledge of Ultimate Reality. Intuition and Reason are equally indispensable instruments of Philosophy.
Bergson is an anti-intellectualist only when by intellect he means the faculty in its usual capacity in practical life. Bergson's approach here seems to be more balanced than that of Bradley. Bergson shows a true insight into the problem when he points out that the difference between various schools of philosophy is because of their fragmentary glimpse of Reality.
All types of methods have been put to test. It is the intellectual search for the fundamental truth of things. It systematises the values in a unified whole. It should not only criticise facts but also satisfy human aspirations. The intellect is not rejected in Spirit but transformed into a better instrument to receive the truth. A true philosophy 37 is an "esprite de ensemble". This is however. Leighton 2. His aim is the pursuit of truth rather than its possession..
Ducasse b Philosophy is comprehensive synthetic science—The following definitions of philosophy emphasize its synthetic aspect: Examples of this type of definitions are as follows: In brief. Thus literally speaking. Literally speaking. I should say that philosophy is general theory of criticism..
In an effort to define philosophy. Hence in order to arrive at the meaning of philosophy you will have to discuss its problems. In fact both these view-points are one-sided because philosophy is both critical as well as synthetic..
And can we understand this definition of science without understanding scientific method? When science cannot be understood without knowing scientific method. Those who enjoy journey do not care so much about the destination. Of these definitions. In 39 defining a science one points out to the genus science and also to the particular area of the particular science which differentiates it from others.
It should be noted here that this definition of philosophy is different from the sense in which the word 'Darshan' has been taken in India. Brightman 2. The literal meaning of philosophy shows that the philosopher is constantly and everywhere engaged in the search for truth. Some examples of these two types of definitions of philosophy are as follows: Some might find this definition very vague and inadequate.
But while defining science. He does not bother so much to arrive at final conclusions and continues with his search for truth throughout his life. For example: All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Thus knowledge grows in a dialectical process through thesis. Thus philosophical thinking proceeds from thesis. He has no laboratory work to do. It goes without saying that in solving its problems concerning science.
The cure of bad philosophy is not the negation of all philosophy but the affirmation of a better philosophy. He utilizes concepts and propounds new theories. The principles of different sciences are arrived at by means of inductive process. The philosopher does not act on the facts like the scientist. This will also clarify the distinctions between philosophy and science which has been forgotten by many philosophers.
This is the method of induction. As he progresses in the knowledge and experience he finds that the world is untrue. To illustrate. For example. In it the man re-thinks over his earlier thought and discovers hitherto unknown facts. Besides the two above mentioned methods. The process to arrive at a general proposition by means of several particular propositions is known as the inductive process and it is equally found in philosophical as well as scientific thinking.
This synthesis. Deductions like this are. This is a natural method of philosophical thinking. As has been already pointed out. It is a commonplace experience that when we think over a problem we arrive at certain positive facts. And then he tries to explain his experiences satisfactorily on the basis of these theories. Now these thesis and anti-thesis cannot live together for long and hence they are synthesised into a synthesis.
Socrates is mortal. Every man some time or the other. The failure of a particular philosophical theory does not mean the failure of philosophy itself because very soon a better philosophical theory substitutes the earlier and this process goes on ad infinitum. Deduction is the process to arrive at certain particular propositions from a general proposition.
When he proceeds further in the realm of knowledge and experience he finds that the world is neither true nor untrue but both. As in science so in philosophy a theory is acknowledged to the extent it satisfactorily explains experience. This is thesis. The effect of philosophy can be seen in the life of the philosopher.
In any time and place contemporary philosophical trends express the process of thinking it contemporary culture. Philosophising involves thinking. This process involves connecting together the scattered elements in a particular experience which brings into light new patterns and facts.
This thinking is critical and the" attitude is philosophical. Analysis means the process of distinction between different elements involved in a particular state of experience so that they might be more clear. In it the philosopher thinks over his own experience. The contemporary school of Logical Positivism has taken analysis as the sole method in philosophy.
Philosophical activity begins in a state of wonder. In the end. While some philosophers have exclusively emphasized the value of philosophical thinking others have absolutely denied its value. While searching for the solution of his problems the philosopher utilizes two methods with regards to his experience.
He replied: Psychology is what psychologists do. A comparison of the history of philosophy with the history of culture will prove this fact.
The Idealist philosophers have laid emphasis on synthesis. Though the method of logical analysis solves many intricate problems in philosophy it does not negate the value of synthesis. The above mentioned discussion only points out its chief characteristics. Philosophical changes are the expressions of cultural changes. It goes without saying that these two extremist views are equally one-sided.
This effect of philosophy is as follows: The activity of philosophy is philosophising. Thus philosophical method is multi-sided. The effect of philosophy is seen not only in the life of the individual but also in group-life.
Though the philosophers have sometimes emphasized this or that method 42 exclusively. Realist philosophers have emphasised this procedure while absolutists have advanced arguments against it. Hocking has said.
As the philosopher develops in his thinking. In fact the philosophical aim is never completely achieved nor is the philosophical curiosity ever completely satisfied because if this is done then philosophical thinking will stop. This does not mean that he is changing his position but only that he is visualizing new truths. A beginner in philosophy is very much perturbed to see this difference of opinion. His efforts should not be evaluated on the basis of definite conclusions but by his philosophical insight.
Another definition of philosophical conclusions may be given by calling them the conclusions of philosophical problems. If by leaving a question unanswered we mean the absence of any final answer to it then this is the case with the philosopher and this has been already discussed. But this is not the case with the philosophers alone. He fails to understand as to which are the philosophical conclusions and which are non-philosophical.
Buy Hardcover. FAQ Policy. About this book This book provides a philosophical foundation to the theory and practice of education from the Indian perspective.
The author maintains that education is a planned, methodical and purposive enhancement of human potentialities as a natural development. This presupposes correct and adequate formulation of the objectives and goals of education as per the needs and aspirations of pupils. Education also equips individuals for a good quality of life.
Keeping in view the applied dimension of philosophy, this book analyses practical issues of moral education like character building value-negativism in the context of education. It also deals with issues concerning peace, sustainable development, sustainable judicious consumption etc. Show all.
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