Andrew performs penetration testing and teaches ethical hacking . thousands of technical books, find code samples, download chapters, and access technical. Andrew performs penetration testing and teaches ethical hacking gramming, database design, and network security for projects all over the world. Daniel has A Spanish version of the OSSTMM is available for free download at http://. sidi-its.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Network Penetration and testing with Cisco.
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Penetration Testing and Network Defense [Andrew Whitaker, Daniel P. Newman] on Get your Kindle here, or download a FREE Kindle Reading App. Book + eBook Bundle Penetration Testing and Network Defense also goes a step further than other books on hacking, as it demonstrates. Claim your eBook on "Advanced Penetration Testing - Hacking the World's Most those hacks using an equally well-known list of defensive scans. book shows you how to defend your high-security network, including: Please ensure you read the terms and conditions to download this eBook for free.
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How do they enter a network? This chapter discusses Trojan horses. You also will learn how to spot the signs of someone performing password cracking. When users make the passwords simple. Penetrating UNIX. This chapter covers these topics. Yet the inherent security in a default installation of popular server operating systems is not the real concern.
Using Trojans and Backdoor Applications It seems like every month. Virus protection software companies make a fortune in helping users protect against lethal viruses. To secure a wireless network. By the end of this chapter. When users employ passwords repeatedly.
If you have more items to transport than your cargo ship can handle. Wireless networks. This chapter aids in this cause. Scanning and Penetrating Wireless Networks Wireless networks are being implemented at a faster pace than ever before.
Attacking the Network Historically. You can circumvent intrusion detection systems IDSs. This chapter covers these topics and provides a detailed examination of how to protect against such attacks through Cisco technology and proper network design. Numerous commercial and noncommercial software tools are mentioned throughout this book. This appendix provides a basic example of a security template that you can use as a template for developing your own policy.
With the knowledge you gain from studying this book. Case Study: Each tool is referenced alphabetically by chapter and contains a website reference for the software. This chapter describes some of the more common methods of performing such attacks. Sometimes an attacker wants to limit the availability of a host or network.
This appendix consolidates all descriptions of the prominent tools in one easy location. He commonly does this through denial-of-service DoS attacks. Life is either a daring adventure. It does not exist in nature. The Open Door Avoidance of danger is no safer in the long run than outright exposure. Malicious hackers are often called black-hat hackers or crackers.
By simulating a live attack. Restrictions usually mandate what a penetration tester can and cannot do. Some of the white-hat ethical hackers were originally black-hat hackers. Penetration testing is the practice of a trusted third-party company attempting to compromise the computer network of an organization for the purpose of assessing its security. For example. A hacker is one who performs hacking either maliciously or defensively. A penetration tester is an ethical hacker who is hired to attempt to compromise the network of a company for the purpose of assessing its data security.
To mitigate risks. Those who hack defensively are often called white-hat hackers. You will see the term malicious hacker s throughout the text of this book. A team of ethical hackers working to break into a network is called a tiger team. What systems will be the target-of-evaluation TOE? Can social engineering be performed? Social engineering is the practice of obtaining network access through manipulating people. Although not the most representative of outside attacks.
White-box test—The tester has complete knowledge of the internal network. The tester might be given network diagrams or a list of operating systems and applications prior to performing tests.
This test assesses internal threats from employees within the company. It is considered the easiest way to gain access because people are generally trusting. A classic form of social engineering is calling up an end user and. Will DoS attacks be allowed? Can backdoor Trojan applications be installed on target systems? Can defacement of websites be attempted? Will the test be black-box. Understanding Penetration Testing Penetration testers can perform three types of tests: Gray-box or crystal-box test—The tester simulates an inside employee.
Sometimes penetration testers are authorized to attempt social engineering methods to gain access. Will the networking team be aware that testing takes place? It is usually not a good idea for the IT team to know about testing because they might seek to harden the systems more than what is typical.
The tester is given an account on the internal network and standard access to the network. An availability threat is when a service or network resource has a risk of being unavailable to users.
A threat is a potential violation of security that might cause harm such as disclosure of sensitive data. A detailed report explaining threats and exploits accomplished. Regression testing can also be performed whenever changes are made to a system. This acceptable level is determined by performing a cost-risk analysis in which the cost of protecting the data is compared to the risk of losing or compromising the data.
A penetration tester is going to test against vulnerabilities and threats. A security policy is a document articulating the best practices for security within an organization as laid out by those individuals responsible for protecting the assets of an organization. Attacks against C. After review of the detailed report. For more on security policies. Security is concerned with the protection of assets against threats.
An integrity threat is when there is a risk of data being changed by unauthorized users. A vulnerability is a weakness. The goal of penetration testing is not to reduce the risk to zero.
Two reports should be made: Testing should be recurring throughout the year such as once every quarter. This does not provide the most accurate results. To save on costs. The penetration testing report should draw its audience back to the security policy. A company should not perform penetration testing just one time. A target is said to be secure when the possibility of undetected theft or tampering is kept to an acceptable level.
If the test is to be distributed electronically. If a target is found to be susceptible to a zero-day exploit. Installing burglar alarms and fences is not enough to ensure that you are safe from burglary.
A zero-day exploit is an undocumented. Security threats are on the rise. Understanding Penetration Testing Policy. To effectively stop a burglar. You can read more about this survey at http: The best practice to protect against zero-day exploits is to implement heuristic. This realization has led to the rise of penetration testing. The need for penetration testing also stems from the concern that a. Not only that.
The complexity of computing systems. Assessing the Need for Penetration Testing The best way to stop a criminal is to think the way a criminal thinks. Companies are no longer falling victim to the Titanic syndrome. Although zero-day exploits are serious threats and coveted attacks by malicious hackers.
A penetration test should also differentiate between common exploits and zero-day exploits. Although security standards such as the Wired Equivalency. Assessing the Need for Penetration Testing 9 network might not be adequately protected from the exponential number of threats. In comparison. Hackers can sniff the wireless network and crack passwords or. When a user launches the executable application. Wireless LANs In Security threats are increasing because of the following factors: Created by a German teenager.
Security professionals scrambled to update their anti-virus signatures in time to defend against Sasser and its variants.
The inevitable creation of viruses and their ensuing damage makes security testing a must for corporations to ensure their protection against unwanted applications.
These vulnerabilities led to the need for penetration testers to attempt to intercept and read or change wireless communication so that companies could assess their wireless security. Frequency of Software Updates Along with the increase in complexity comes the increase in the number of software patches that need to be installed.
Penetration testers assess the vulnerabilities through simulated attacks. Penetration testers. Availability of Hacking Tools Thousands of software tools exist to attack networks. Chapter Having an unbiased view of the security infrastructure of an organization is a big selling point for companies. A static website housed on a web server is not enough. Complexity of Networks Today In the past. SQL databases. Asking administrators to be experts on computer cracking while staying abreast of their other daily responsibilities is not feasible.
As a result. Administrators of networks are expected to be far more knowledgeable than what was expected of them previously. What is worse. Administrators and managers often downplay any vulnerabilities discovered.
Each of these technologies has gotten more complex. The Nature of Open Source In The freedom to study how the program works and adapt it to your needs.
In defense of GNU. Access to the source code is a precondition for this. Their license. Penetration testers can assess the security of the online presence of a company. Because hackers can also read the source code. The freedom to redistribute copies so that you can help your neighbor. Penetration testers are needed to attempt to exploit potential vulnerabilities of open source software to determine the likelihood of attack. The easier it is to attack a network.
In fact. A script-kiddie is a person who does not have expert-level knowledge of programming or networking. Forrester research http: Assessing the Need for Penetration Testing 11 foundational computer knowledge to execute and attack networks. Reliance on the Internet The economy of today depends on the Internet for success. Having an online presence comes with a risk. Risk analysis assesses the critical components of your network infrastructure and the risks associated with them.
Penetration testers are needed to validate the security of these sites. Industry Regulations Many industries have federal guidelines for data security that they have to meet.
Understanding Penetration Testing Unmonitored Mobile Users and Telecommuters More companies than ever are allowing users to work remotely or out of their home. Hackers who have knowledge of these remote connections can use them for their advantage.
Companies can hire penetration testers to do gray-box testing. Penetration testers are often hired to ensure compliancy with these requirements. Performing a risk analysis allows senior management to identify critical assets and appropriate necessary safeguards to protect public health information. Sometimes the results of the tests are provided to potential customers. Marketing Demands Financial institutions. In an active reconnaissance attack. Often when two companies form a partnership.
Government agencies often hire penetration testers to assess the vulnerability of the agency to hacktivist attacks. Hacktivism Government organizations and popular corporate dot-com sites can be more susceptible to hacktivism than other lesser-known sites. Reconnaissance can be both active and passive.
Companies can be liable for their security weaknesses. Hacktivism is hacking for a political. Business Partnerships Many companies are forming business partnerships to improve sales results. The factors you should consider are as follows: The goal here is to determine services that are running on target hosts. Because many attacks go undetected. Part of the scanning phase also involves scanning for vulnerabilities. After scanning the target network for weaknesses. Understanding Penetration Testing transfers.
Ask for references—The company might have previous clients that you can talk to. Testing for vulnerabilities prepares you for discovering methods to gain access to a target host.
In a passive reconnaissance attack. The last phase of testing is erasing evidence. Choosing a Penetration Testing Vendor After you or your company makes the decision to use a penetration testing vendor. Perform background checks—The company should either provide you with documentation on criminal background checks of employees. Maintaining access is done through installing backdoor Trojan applications that allow the tester to return to the system repeatedly. Many customers do not want their name given as a customer for privacy reasons.
The second stage is scanning. If you are not authorized to attempt log erasures. See Chapter 5. Avoid doing business with vendors who provide you with real reports. Assess the professionalism of the team—The sales team for the testing vendor should not use intimidation as a means to obtain business. Although this is not bad in itself. If they are. If not. This is usually a sign of desperation on behalf of the company. These sample reports should be generic reports without a reference to company identities.
Determine whether the vendor will provide you with the IP addresses of their testing machines—If it is a black-box test. Determine the scope of your testing—Make sure your vendor is skilled to test every component. They should maintain professionalism at all times. They should not use scare tactics to convince you of your need to use their services.
IP addresses. You should inquire into their experience and exposure to penetration testing. Or does it use a toolkit of many tools designed for a variety of operating systems? Meet the penetration testers themselves and not just the sales team—You want to ensure that the sales team does not oversell you and make promises or claims that are unrealistic.
In the event of an unexpected result. The POC is also responsible for disaster recovery or incident response should unexpected results occur. Interviewing the penetration testers can help you get a feel for their technical expertise. The report analysis should be based on a qualitative risk assessment and not just on the personal opinion of the auditor. You should also consider whether you are going to have recommendations included on how to mitigate risks discovered during testing.
Summary Penetration testing is the practice of a trusted third party attempting to compromise the computer network of an organization for the purpose of assessing the level and scope of its security. The vendor should either destroy any copies of the report that it possesses after completion of the test or store the results in a secure manner.
Bait and Switch. A honeypot is a nonsecured server that is used to draw attackers in to probe and exploit while you monitor and record their activity. Numerous vendors supply prebuilt honeypot servers. Agree on the transmission and storage of data—Data can be transmitted as encrypted soft copies. These testers should be able to spot the weaknesses of the honeypot server.
Never exchange unencrypted soft copies of reports that reveal sensitive information. Usually used for forensic purposes and to distract potential intruders. After you choose a penetration testing vendor. Yet you delight more in breaking them. You delight in laying down laws. If the tire comes undone. You wonder if you should attempt to take the tire off to see if it is easily undone. You are being asked to perform a task that would otherwise be illegal. Sometimes scanning tools that would otherwise be harmless cause unexpected results.
The parents ask you to do them this favor and tell them the results. When they are. Because of the severe impact of DoS attacks. The child does not know that you are going to attempt to steal it. Penetration testing is no different from this analogy.
In penetration testing. You know that stealing is illegal. Ethics of Penetration Testing Imagine that you were asked by your neighbors to steal the bicycle of their child. This chapter addresses the ethics. A DoS attack is an attack that prevents a host from functioning in accordance with its intended purpose. It is unethical to perform a DoS attack on your target if the testing contract does not allow for such. Such attacks can have a severe impact on daily operations.
Informing employees—especially IT staff—might lead to inaccurate results because they might attempt to harden their systems to prevent your access.
Have a disclaimer clause and. Your contract should state. Going back to the analogy. When you run nmap with the —sO option. Legal and Ethical Considerations communicate to your client that DoS attacks will not be willfully tested but that they might occur in the process of other tests. You can imagine the shock of the institution when it discovered these contents being distributed to its competitors! They have published the Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics..
If DoS attacks are not allowed in the test NOTE For example. Shred any hard copies of the report. After the test is completed. Bad frame pointer: Your ethical responsibilities do not stop when the test is done. The Washington Consulting Group. Laws 23 4 Thou shalt not use a computer to steal. Cybercrime still constitutes crimes against people and property. Unlike traditional crime. Although noble in their attempt. The European Council Convention on Cybercrime acted to harmonize computer crime laws across European nations.
At best. Because cybercriminals can be anywhere in the world. Getting more than countries to agree on a single standard for security implementations is a daunting task.
DoS attacks. Cybercrime is unlawful activity performed through the use of technology. Evidence is usually volatile and is often covered up by the perpetrator. Penetration testers need to be aware of laws that might impact the type of tests they perform. If you were to rob a bank. Common types of cybercrime include the theft of passwords. With the exception of perhaps DoS attacks. Cybercrime does pose some new issues. Laws Going outside of your contractual boundaries is not only unethical.
Throughout history. Cybercrime also makes capturing physical evidence harder. Laws Pertaining to Hacking Following are examples of these laws: The OECD guidelines provide an initial framework for countries to then establish government standards and laws.
In Towards a Culture of Security. This document is based on numerous principles. In the United States. We hope for rapid success in the ongoing efforts to improve on the United Kingdom legislation on computer crime.
On July 2. You can read about participating countries by visiting the OECD website at http: The sections that follow provide details on the laws in the preceding list and other laws pertaining to hacking. Laws 25 U. Because of its immediate relevance.
As a penetration tester. Although this law predates the current trends in penetration testing. B information from any department or agency of the United States. Legal and Ethical Considerations not entitled to receive it. Brett O'Keefe. Double jeopardy laws that prevent being tried twice for the same crime do not apply if the.
His case is ongoing. These offenses come with serious penalties. State Laws Most states have their own computer crime laws. If a penetration tester were to unknowingly cause a DoS attack on a client and the contract does not permit such attacks. David Smith. Cases prosecuted under state law are rare.
The key word here is intent. Simple cracking laws are typically misdemeanors. Peter Borghard. Because the Internet is a global network.
Laws 27 damage to a protected computer.
These cases differ from the Brett O'Keefe case. Acts committed by negligence are not covered under this law.
Security professionals who are knowledgeable of the tools and techniques covered in this book are sometimes tempted to try them at their workplace or against other organizations. This law makes it a crime to knowingly access a computer and thereby intentionally cause damage without authorization to a protected computer.
NOTE Because of sentencing guidelines. Cases can be tried in both federal and state court. As soon as a malicious attack crosses state lines. Legal and Ethical Considerations criminal charges are different. To compare state laws. It reads as follows: This section examines the following regulatory laws that can lead to the need for penetration testing: Regulatory Laws In the preceding section.
Penetration testers should be familiar with the policy of the institution and test to verify its accuracy.
This encompasses both hard copies and technical equipment that stores soft copies of patient information. This act intends to protect private personal data while in storage by implementing security access controls. This entails both attacking databases see Chapter 8. Laws 29 disclosures of the information. This also covers security awareness and training. If someone does manage to obtain a copy of the data.
The responsibility for health care professionals was extended to technology and software vendors on April As part of the administrative safeguards.
Physical security for technical equipment extends to workstation use and security. As mentioned in section Technical safeguards relate to software and hardware technology. If you perform penetration testing against health care institutions. All banks. Administrative safeguards relate to policies and procedures affecting the transmission of EPHI. Physical safeguards relate to physical protection of patient records. This inclusion extends the responsibility onto software vendors and business partners who interact with health care organizations.
It calls for the analysis of cyber and telecommunications infrastructure security. Among other things. To allow for more available means to intercept potential threats. Penetration testers are hired to assist in this analysis by attempting to break into simulated environments established by the U. Senate realized that it could not deal with terrorist threats as it did in antebellum days.
North and South Korea. A penetration tester. Although the individual laws are too numerous to mention here. Logging 31 The best type of penetration testing related to this act is gray-box testing.
Penetration Testing and Network Defense
Advanced Penetration Testing: Hacking the World's Most Secure Networks takes hacking far beyond Kali linux and Metasploit to provide a more complex attack simulation. Featuring techniques not taught in any certification prep or covered by common defensive scanners, this book integrates social engineering, programming, and vulnerability exploits into a multidisciplinary approach for targeting and compromising high security environments.
From discovering and creating attack vectors, and moving unseen through a target enterprise, to establishing command and exfiltrating data—even from organizations without a direct Internet connection—this guide contains the crucial techniques that provide a more accurate picture of your system's defense.
Today's threats are organized, professionally-run, and very much for-profit. Financial institutions, health care organizations, law enforcement, government agencies, and other high-value targets need to harden their IT infrastructure and human capital against targeted advanced attacks from motivated professionals.
Using targeted social engineering pretexts to create the initial compromise Leaving a command and control structure in place for long-term access Escalating privilege and breach networks, operating systems, and trust structures Infiltrating further using harvested credentials while expanding control From discovering and creating attack vectors, and moving unseen through a target enterprise, to establishing command and exfiltrating data—even from organizations without a direct Internet connection—this guide contains the crucial techniques that provide a more accurate picture of your system's defense.
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