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infections in Gia Vien district, Ninh Binh province,. Vietnam. Nguyen Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet St., Cau Giay district, Hanoi,. Vietnam. Full list of Centrocestus formosanus, Haplorchis pumilio, H. taichui, H. yokogawai . The period of rest between dip-net use was 30 mi- nutes. A total. PDF | Background Ninh Binh province is known as an endemic area of fish-borne Current status of fish-borne zoonotic trematode infections in Gia Vien district, Ninh Binh . Download full-text PDF .. For fish living in rivers and canals, dip- nets were used Kino H, Inaba H, Nguyen VD, Le VC, Dang TS, Hoan TH, et al . We conducted a study in Gia Vien district, Ninh Binh province from August to Because of flooding in the rainy season caused by Hoang Long River, The period of rest between dip-net use was 30 minutes. .. Nguyen MH, Madsen H, Fried B. Global status of fish-borne zoonotic .. Download article.

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Records 55 - 61 A preliminary check-list of the fishes known or expected to Mai Dinh Yen provided welcome insights into the history of Vietnamese ichthyology. Download with Facebook Tuan Hoang The second aspect is the promotion of individualism. It also reviews R. B. Smith, An International History of the Vietnam War: The Kennedy Strategy (New York: St. “Huan Thi cua Tong Thong nhan Dip Cuu Can Bo va Dang Vien Cong San Ly Khai Toi Yet Kien Tong. ability of Vietnam, but also by the equally diverse cultures Pham-hoang Ho. Ste. large and heterogenous zone 1 is further di- vided into: 1) the Lam Vien highlands in the south (Fig. 1) .. provinces of Quang Nam and Phan Rang. It.

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Adult male, snout- vent length SVL Cloacal region of the holotype of Cyrtodactylus o tai sp. Dorsal scales granular; dorsal tubercles round, conical, present on occipital region and back, each surrounded. Tail complete, longer than snout—vent length TaL Coloration in preservative. Ground color of dorsal head and back greyish cream ; a narrow dark brown band.

TABLE 3. Measure ments of Cy rtodactylus otai sp. Species Cyrtodac tylus otai sp. SVL TaL AG HL HW EyeEar 7. ForeaL CrusL BW IND 3. TABLE 4. Scalation of Cyrtodactylus otai sp. Species Cyrtodactylus otai sp. Cyrtodacty lus bobrovi s p. Sexual dimorphism and variation. The females differ from the males in the absence of precloacal pores and. There is a dark brown blotch in the middle of the neck of the holotype and one. For other m orphological characters see Tables 3,. W e name this new species in honor of Prof.

Hidetoshi Ota, Institute of Natural and. Environmental Sciences, University of Hy ogo, Japan, in recognition of his outstanding contributions towards. Natural history. Specimens were found at night between The surrounding. Hoang, i n karst forest. VNMN A. Pham and H. Ngo, in karst forest near Khu. Nguyen and C. Pham in karst forest near Cho V illag e. The new species diffe rs fro m other me mbers of the genu s Cyrtodactylus from Indochina by a.

Descript ion of ho lotype. Adult male, snout-vent length SVL Photos C. Cloacal region of the holotype of Cyrtodactylus b obrovi sp.

Tail regenerated T aL Ground color of dorsal head and back greyish brown; a narrow brown band. For coloration in life see Fig. T he females differ from the males by having a slender body, the absence. Two females have complete tails with slig htly.

The nuchal band is discontinuous in the holotype but continuous in the paratypes. For other. Cyrtodactylus bobrovi is currently known only from the type locality, Ngoc Son—Ngo Luong. We name this new species in honor of Dr. Vladimir V. Bobrov, A. Severtsov Institute of.

Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, in recognition of his remarkable contributions towards. W e sugg est the following common names: The surrounding habitat was. Three specimens were found on limestone cliffs near cave entrances, approximately 0.

In the phylogenetic analyses, Cyrtodactylus otai is the sister species of C. Clade B with C. In terms of altitude gradient, specimens of C. A total of 12 new species of. Cyrtodactylus have been discovered from this subregion since , however, only C. Other species inhabit limestone karst forests in. Binh Province , C. Province , C. Co and Ngoc Son—Ngo Luong nature reserves for support of our field work and issuing relevant perm its. We thank H. Ng o for laboratory assistance, E.

Sterling New York and K. Koy Berkeley. Hoang thanks N. Quach, Y. Luu Hanoi for support of his work. Many thanks to. Grismer, S. Bauer Villanova for their helpful comments. Field work in northwestern Vietnam was supported by the National.

Geographic Society Grant No. Bain, R. Bulletin of the. American Museum of Natural History , , 1— Bauer, A. Part 1. Australia and Oceania.

Das T ierreich , , 1—. Gekkonidae , a new cave—dwelling gecko from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Zootaxa , , 41—. Zootaxa , , 1— David, P. Laos Squamata: Zootaxa , , 29— Gekkonidae from.

The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology , 52, — Dring, J. Cnemaspis and Cyrtodactylus. Geissler, P. Cyrtodactylus irregula ris complex Squamata: Gekkonidae from southern V ietnam. Zootaxa , , 20— Hoang, Q.

Editorial Reviews

Gekkonidae from the karst of North Central V ietnam. Journal of Herpetology , 14, 98— Ivanova, N. Molecular Ecology Notes , 6, — Le, M. Testud inidae. Luu, V. Gekkonidae from Khammouane Province, Laos. Gekkonidae from Huong Son.

Zootaxa , , 39— Nazarov, R. Lac Province , Vietnam. Russian Journa l of Herpetology , 15, — Gekkonidae in fauna of Laos with description of four new. Ngo, T. Northwestern Vietnam. Zoota xa, , 33— Gekkonidae from southern Vietnam. Zootaxa , , —16 4.

Gekkonidae from Northern. Zootaxa , , 51— L A new karst dwelling Cyrtodactylus Squamata: Gek konidae from Son La Province,. Hama dryad , 3 5, 84— Nguyen, S.

Nguyen, T. Gekkonidae from Vietnam with the description of two new species. Zootaxa , 4 , —. Che, J. Cyrtodactylus and the description of a new species. Zootaxa , 1 , 48— Zootaxa , , 1— Pauwels, O. Zootaxa , 6 , —58 3. Gekkonidae , a new. Zootaxa , 36 35 3 , — Bent-toed Gecko Squamata: Gekkonidae from Lampang Province, northern Thailand.

Zootaxa , 6 , 58 4— Phung, T. Posada, D. Ronquist, F. Huelsenbeck, J. Schneider, N. D, Nophaseud, L. Gekkonidae from the karst forest of northern Laos. Zootaxa , 1 , 80—9 6. Cyrtodactylus Squamata: Gekkonidae from northwestern Laos. Khanh Hoa Province, southern V ietnam. Zootaxa , 4 , — Swofford, D. Sinauer Associates,. Thompson, J. Uetz, P. Available from: Ziegler, T. Gekkonidae from Phu Y en.

Province, southern V ietnam. Zootaxa , 4 , — Comparative material exam ined. Cyrtodactylus bichnganae. V ietnam: Son La: Son La City: Huon g Son: Phou Hin Boun: Vientiane Province: V ang Vieng: Quang Binh Province: Phong Nha—Ke Bang: Borikhamxay Province: NEM holotype ; Khammuane Province: Ban Na Than: I EBR. Luang Prabang: Luang Nam Tha: Vieng Phoukha: Citations References Our recent herpetological field work conducted in the limestone karst forest of Cuc Phuong NP has revealed the existence of Cyrtodactylus bobrovi which was first described in by Nguyen et al.

Based on morphological characters of one collected adult female specimen, we herein describe it as a new record of Cyrtodactylus bobrovi from Cuc Phuong NP belonging to the area of Thanh Hoa Province. Coloration in life.

Ground color brownish- grey, dorsal surface of head with dark dots; two narrow brown stripes present in snout region; a dark stripe leading from posterior corner of eye backwards to above tympanum and two large dark area on necks; forming an interrupted nuchal loop posteriorly; neck with some large dark blotches, edged in yellowish white, body bands between limb insertions five, irregular, blackish; dorsal surface of fore and hindlimbs with dark bars, upper surface of regenerated tail with totally indistinct transverse bands, chin, throat and belly cream, regenerated tail ventrally blackish without bands determination after Nguyen et al.

Full-text available. Jun In the ML analysis, the -Ln likelihood score of the single best tree found was The topology derived from the Bayesian analysis Fig. Morphological characters of the two specimens from Son La Province also fit well with the descriptions of Nguyen et al.

Body elongate, head distinguished from neck, elongate, depressed; snout long, round anteriorly; snout scales small, round, granular, larger than those on frontal and parietal regions; eye large, pupils vertical; upper eyelid fringe with spinous scales; ear oval, small; rostral wider than high with a medial suture; mental triangular, slightly narrower than rostral; supralabials 10; infralabials A new species of Cyrtodactylus Squamata: Gekkonidae and the first record of C.

We describe a new species of Cyrtodactylus on the basis of four specimens collected from the limestone karst forest of Phu Yen District, Son La Province, Vietnam.

Cyrtodactylus sonlaensis sp. In phylogenetic analyses, the new species is nested in a clade consisting of C. Recent herpetological work has underlined the special role of karst habitats in promoting speciation of gekkonid lizards in Vietnam, particularly the bent-toed geckos of the genus Cyrtodactylus Nguyen et al.

The knowledge on species richness of this genus in Vietnam has dramatically increased from three in to 37 at present Nguyen et al. During recent field work in northern Vietnam, we collected six specimens of an unnamed gekkonid species from Van Long Wetland Nature Reserve in Ninh Binh Province, which can be assigned to Cyrtodactylus based on morphological features and phylogenetic analyses.

Gekkonidae from Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam. We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus on the basis of six specimens collected from the limestone forest of the Van Long Wetland Nature Reserve, Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam.

Cyrtodactylus soni sp. In the phylogenetic analyses, the new species is nested in a clade containing taxa from northwestern and northcentral Vietnam and northern Laos. Although these records were not analyzed quantitatively, our own data suggest sympatric pattern in the area. Genetic distinction between the newly recognized taxa and described species exceeds or is equivalent to molecular divergence among the species, for example C.

From all available lines of evidence, we come to the conclusion that the taxa cannot be considered conspecific and that separation through evolutionary processes already has began at different levels, and thus are described in the following. The cluster and correspondence analyses indicated that Cyrtodactylus calamei sp. Evolution in karst massifs: Cryptic diversity among bent-toed geckos along the Truong Son Range with descriptions of three new species and one new country record from Laos.

Species designated as 'cryptic' share a similar morphotype, and are often only clearly separable by molecular data. Cyrtodactylus, the most diverse gecko genus of the family Gekkonidae, is a prime example, because many morphologically similar taxa have only recently been identified as new species as a result of available genetic evidence. However, while cryptic diversity of Cyrtodactylus is already well documented on the Vietnamese side of the Truong Son range, only scarce data is available from central Laos.

In this study, we address this issue by means of an integrative approach, which employs morphological, molecular, and ecological data to distinguish cryptic species of the Cyrtodacylus phongnhakebangensis species group primarily distributed along the northern Truong Son Range. Our analyses based on 12 selected morphological characters, a partial mitochondrial gene COI , and five ecological parameters revealed three undescribed cryptic Cyrtodactylus species from Hin Nam No National Protected Area, which are described as Cyrtodactylus calamei sp.

A fourth discovered Cyrtodactylus population in Hin Nam No proved to be the first country record of C. Our results highlight the importance of applying an integrative approach to resolving the taxonomy of complex and cryptic species groups, and the role of the Truong Son Range in maintaining the high level of biodiversity over time.

In previous studies, e. VNGOs can operate, grew from 15 re gistered organisations in to about VNGOs undertake work ranging. Data at the end of There are many. LGBT-related interest group. The state sti ll controls CSOs through lengthy and controv ersial. Procedu res apply all the way to the commune level. To have legal statu s, CSO groups need to be approv ed by the. All grants and program me s impleme nted by CSOs require approval from a. Without a legal registration a CSO canno t.

Those who are registered mostly have legal status under umbrella. Foreigners working wi th CSOs also need clearance from the police and from. Many self-help groups, even those groups working on activi ties in.

The decision, whi ch prevents CSOs from operating independently ,. Although new state. The political significance of the rapid emer gence of a formal and informal non-state sector is.

Some researche rs emphasise that the many laws and rules in. Others argue that civil society groups and actors are actual ly. To re cognise opportunities for engagement , these. While calls for systemic poli tical. Sexual and reproductive health is no longer considered a controversial top ic that could. On the contrary, the Vietnamese state.

Many receive. Between and , peopl e working on issues related to HIV. The increased frequency of the public appearanc e of MSM, who take active roles in. HIV prevention program me s, helps to chan ge public perception about homosexual. The support of the Mi nistry of Health to the draft revised Law.

The approval of same-sex marriages in. Some LGBT activi sts distance. However, we are scared. They are related to HIV, which can have a negative influence on the. These social activities are about human rights. We do not. When they join our ac tivities, they do not wear the HIV hat. I do not see a strong connec tion between the activities of MSM.

Peaceful demonstrations by formal civi l society organisations are legally restricted. On According to. Public activities organised by the Communist Party, the Fatherland Front. If a registered N GO. The NGO might also need to seek permissi on for. But not all groups are subjected to the same lev el of scrutiny, and enforcement of some rules.

Some groups, such as Agent Oran ge victims, for instance, are encouraged and. On that same. Flashmobs with hundreds and even thousands o f people celebrating LGBT rights were. Not all these events had official permission. There is thus room for LGBT activi sts to. L GBT leaders have found that because they. It [LGBT rights movement] does not hurt anyon e. It is different from demonstra tions. The i slands are a sensitive issue because it is. Land use protesters are also not. Th e mobilisation of the LGBT community is ver y peaceful and does not serve any.

In Vietnam, the emotion,. We are. LGBT individuals involved in campaignin g for gender and sexual minority rights also. In the north, discrimination toward L GBT is not strong.

The dominant attitude is. Peo ple think this is not about my. The public thinks this is just a. But if. The police were following VietPride and did nothi ng. We did not threaten their.

As we did nothing they. Talking about the East Sea is a different story and they would. I think LGBT issu es do not relate much to political. Depoliticisation might reflect both a lac k of political awareness toward sexual politics and a. It could also be interpreted as a manifestation of a. Whatever its origins, this strategy has immediate benefits as it enhances the. House ; HRW LGBT bloggers and jo urnalists, however, are not specificall y.

In actuality, civ il society groups, including LGBT groups, are. The Vietnamese. Most news organisations are. Criticism of the gov ernment is muted. But news organisations. The government and the media mus t find a balance between loyalty to the state and.

Durin g this period, there was an increase in the number. But 41 per cent of the articles contained a negative attitude. Base d on the review, iSEE, a. Right from the beginning we decided that not law but media should be the target of.

Media has an important role in orienting social attitudes, and the way that. Meanwhile, laws in Vietnam are fine in gene ral. They do not criminalise. ICS group, which was a major play er in the program me , later became a key actor in the. Around the world, members of the LGBT com munity are using the internet as a means of. Internet usage has grown exponential ly since. Today an estimated 31 million Vietnamese — 35 per ce nt. Seventy per cent of those using the web use Facebook.

With During the first ten ye ars of internet development — when chat rooms and online forums were. Families and school s called for restrictions on internet usage,. Many online forums,. An administ rator plays the role of a moderator and keeps the. For members of the LGBT community, onli ne forums are an important. Research shows that these online meeting place s are the most frequently used channels for. LGBT online.

It is important in the Vietnamese contex t to distinguish between individual bloggers,. Blogging and Facebook giv e individuals the opportunity to assert their own opi nion,.

Bloggers can function as pol itical activists who are challenging the. Government regulations appear to focus on con trolling individual bloggers and Facebook. Bloggers can be fined as much as. Decree 7 2 outlaws posting internet content. ICS was formed in mainly by members of five online forums. ICS formally registered as an ind ependent organisation in late Interviews with founders or administrators of LGBT online forums revealed that they are.

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Many online forums explicitly state that par ticipants. These are clearly w ritten in. Another participant, a year old lesbian fro m Hanoi, noted: They provide opportunities for peopl e to follow many topics, including literatu re,.

There are anti-porn moderators to ensure that even if the police enter the. There is a long history of same-sex relations and same-sex marriage in Vietnam. During the. Nguyen dynasty — a marria ge between two eunuchs was permitted and. There were no legal definitions of marria ge. Today, same-sex couples can cohabitate. Homosex ual behaviour is not. In , the Marriage and Family Law was revised, and the new law specifically outlawed.

This law defines famil y and marriage and also gives a list of detailed. It also outlaws sexual assault and se xual abuse of. It obligates the husband and w ife to implement the population and. Article 10 was an addition to the earlier Law on Marriage and Family. Following the new law the media were silent abou t same-sex marriage. In , the first public same-sex wedding was or ganised in a restaurant in Ho Chi Minh Ci ty.

The wedding w as not supported by the local authority but it was. Similar situations were witnessed during gay weddings the following year. Two months. Though marriage was outlawed , wedding ceremonies between same-sex couples did. The following year, the ceremonies were also. A decree in stipulated that sa me-sex couples who hold a wedding ceremony. Some authorities. For example, on 4 December , a femal e couple held a. This attracted a considerabl e amount of attention because they posted a.

This couple did not. Similarly a gay couple who had a ceremony. In contrast, two same-sex weddings in southern Vietnam in were stopped and the. The fema le couple fled their home to avoid public.

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They were pursued by authorities, who c hecked with local hotels and guesthouses,. Until that law polygamy was not illeg al. Article 1 of the Law on Marriage an d Families Articles 1, 3 and 4, for example, specify these rights. The implementation of the law has not been consi stent, according to LGBT community. It is interesting that weddings in Hanoi and Sai gon happened in peace and were not. Basically, the authorities did. Law dissemination in. There are so many laws and legal documents in Vietnam that even people in the local.

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They ac t based on their personal. Gay man from focus group in Ho C hi Minh Ci ty. These events were widely covered by the. Vietnamese media. Opponents argued that the administrative fine was unjustly applied to. On 24 Septembe r , the government issued a new decree sta ting.

According to the revised draft law, same-sex coup les can cohabitate and have wedding. A family is defined in the Family and. For some lawmakers, marriage is linked to reproduction:. Marriage is the establishment of a husband and wife relationship between a man and.

There appears to be confusion among policy makers about the differences between. According to me, we should allow homosexual people to change their sex according. They can make administrative change such as. The current. Civil Code in only allows sex reassign ment but not sex change. Thus, I would. Since same-sex couples are not seen as a family, they are not protected by laws that apply. Current laws regarding family and marriage are confusing and inconsistent, which leav es.

Discrimination comes in many. M en who reveal they are gay have lost th eir jobs and friends; they are subjected to. Research shows. Coming out has benefits and ris ks. We gain more than we have lost by being open but this does not mean that we have.

My son was intervi ewed at one event and his photo was.

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He had interviewed for a job and had already been accepted. Lesbian women also face serious stigma. Some report being victims of physical and sexua l. Most homosexuals and. For transgender people, hiding is more di fficult.

There are some male- to -female transgende r. Male- to -. E ffeminate men are considered to be a. Quynh Tram is a male- to - fe male tr anssexual teacher.

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She is the first and only pe rson to be recognised by the state as a. Getting married to a woman and ha ving children a son to continue the family. A failure to comply does not only affect them but also their. Women are also under pressure from du ties and responsibilities as mothers and caregiv ers. LGBT people and their families have to navigate these social and.

Parents of LGBT have to deal with their ow n fears of aging and being without grandchi ldren,. Clubs for parents of LGBT children can help to. I have only one son, and he is in this situation of being gay. Given this situation I may.

Many people asked me if I would be sad if that is the. I think I would be happy to. I just hope that my son will. Many parents supporting their LGBT children co unter traditional social pressure by. Since feudal society, the common perception was that we must have children to. I think that the idea to have children in order to have. Happiness of children should be the most impo rtant thing for us as parents.

They also believe that their children have the sa me rights as other Vietnamese children, are. I think that same-sex couples who have wedding ceremonies mostly desire equality. Why can others have. It co mes from true love. It is a popula r. I think they want to have. In sum, we can conclude that the formal legal opp ortunities for LGBT activism and. Howev er, whether a protest is suppressed or tolerated or. There are large, thriv ing. LGB T issues are not perceived as political ly sensitive;.

There is also evidence that social nor ms and attitudes regarding homosexuali ty. Some people who know an LGB T person, such as a family member, are more likely to. The following case studies illustrate how LGBT civil society groups are engaging with the law.

The first VietPride events were held ov er a long weekend in August in Hanoi. The cultural organisation is. Representativ es from the. Goethe Institute and UN Women delivered keyno te speeches. There was a film screening. LGBT groups on their activities.

Cycl e with Pride was held on the morning of 5 August,. The slo gan. About people. The event was organised by the VietPri de team, which was led by a year-old Vietnamese. She was back in Vietnam as a.

Pride in Sweden activities that she had been pa rt of in , she wanted to organis e. CSAGA , the. How ever, the plan was criticised as it woul d essentially. Cycle w ith Pride was then added. The VietPride budget was small, the timeline w as short and there was only a four-person.

The group had 2. Swedish and Canadian embassies, and only ten volunteers. The team was effective in. This reflected the fact that team membe rs. Among the groups. The private sector, including internation al businesses such as Lebox Produktion. LGBT Pride has a long history and is very much recognised internationally. Thus, they told me that because screening a film would. They only knew.

Local authorities demanded and were given explanations about VietPride and its purpose,. However, the event passed. Only when the crowd finished the ride and. The event was wi dely. Most of the media coverage was very positi ve about breaking. They offered personal stories of participants, such as a. This student. But I feel. Others said that they participated in the ev ent. VietPride was larger in scale. ICS provided technical suppo rt for the local event. The group also provi ded. VietPride events took place.

According to regulations in Vietnam, approval for organising public events should be given by a regis tered organisation.

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This diversity in leadership w as. They were led by the VietPride group in collaboration wi th other. Private sector companies such as Vietsmile, a social enterprise, again supported.

The format was similar to VietP ride , with two new components: About people joined. The VietPride director. They needed to submit documents for approv al for the event at the Goethe Institute, which.

Again they could not get approval for the bicycle. The proce ssion was peaceful. At the end of the pa rade, the. Organisers of public events understood they might be seen as politically controversial and. We did not have big banners or posters.

We did everything low key. We did not make big slogans. The slogan was just about. We also used a small. We told people that you should not. Through formal and informal communica tions with city officials, public event organisers know. VietPride organisers adjus ted their activities accordingly.

It was no problem when we were cycling. However, when we stopped, some. We ha d already prepared for this situation. We arranged ourselves as several groups so when we dispersed we did. This helped prolong our ti me at the venue and also showed we. Most of the participants were from HCM C. At firs t, organisers only planned to walk around the. As the c rowd grew and their confidence increased, they.

Thanh Market and the Independence Palace. Several guards at the parks along the route stopp ed the marchers and asked them questions. Members o f the group explained that they were participants. ICS, the. The ev ent. VietPride on street in Hochiminh city. Photogr apher: VietPride events were organised in ten other prov inces by local groups and included a range. Flashmobs, which often perform a dance and then. In Thanh. Hoa and Tien Giang, young people organised cycle rallies.

Tau, internet forum participants met face- to -face in offline meetings. Respondents spoke about the importance of publ icly supporting LGBT rights and the val ue of. When we were in the group w e were not. One mother, who was. We are not afraid o f being judged by other people. When w e step in a. These VietPride events attracted global at tention but they were not the only efforts to take.

Several authorised LGBT events were orga nised in and by different. In the summer o f. HCMC to highlight youth support for same-sex relationships. About 1, people participated. With so many events, some participa nts. A lesbian from Hanoi. In , we had many even ts: Photog rapher: Howev er,. Instead they carry out their acti vities legally through the legal status of a.

Using this. To get approval for publ ic activities can be difficult. One time, we wanted to do our event in the. However, the venue manager told us that if you want to do the event in the front yard,. However, if you do the event. ICS representative and VietPride event organise r. In sum, young LGBT people have been able to create a space to express themselves. LGBT activists were able. Sometimes they negotiated passage. They distanced the mselves from controversial political subjects.

It sent an official letter,. The document was also sent to the Unite d Nations Development Programme. Because same-. The dilemma of respecting human right s and traditional culture was raised in.

The Ministry of Justice agreed. This invitation to revise the law and accept. One ICS represe ntative said: They called meetings with other organisations. These organisations all support LGBT people but the y are not all. Some are research or ganisations working on broader sexual and.

The purpose of this coalition was to remove. Item 5 in Article 10 of the Marriage and Family Law. Three strategies were identified durin g these coalition meetings:. MOJ invited a number o f. The first meetings with MOJ were very open and informal.

MOJ asked what civil. MOJ did not know this as they were unfa miliar with these groups and were very open. The topic was new and not yet. Perhaps this is why. For the organisations in the coalition, the oppo rtunity to consult on the law was an. It is important for people to see that this is a human rights issue and it concerns. The coalition was broad and reached out to bo th online and offline LGBT community. It also had a clear division of tasks and leadership.

In one coalition meeting, the. This approach linked the LGBT rights mov ement with a broader framework on sexua l rights. She par ticipated in these meetings and took note. Within this ideological framework, the coalition i mplemented a series of independent but.

October at the National Conference on Dom estic Violence; and. By the end of , support for same-sex marriage gained enough momentum to discuss not. In early , the government announced tha t, due to the complexity of the issues, a rev iew.

Originally the review was to take place. It was scheduled for a vote in Oc tober. The review was delayed to The delay does offer several advantages for L GBT. Regarding same-sex marriage, I think that it i s an advantage to postpone the review. Following the postponement, LGBT activ ists organised a wedding campaign to educate the.

Actors played the roles of. Committee, co-chaired a dialogue between me mbers of the LGBT community and. The meeting was. Legal regulations and. Women also organised several consultation w orkshops on the revised law with the. In July , the Ministry of Justice presented a draft of the revised law to the prime minister. A representative from the draftin g team declared on VTV1 state television that the new.

But when LGBT groups and supportin g. The draft removed the prohibition. Office of Government, July The revisi on gave a same-sex cohab it ing couple the. When the Ministry of Justice issued the dra ft law, it was a call to action for many same-sex.

They wanted to be prepared for the National Assembly meeting in November ,. Others were new people who. These events helped to forge new relationshi ps between groups. I was not involved in organising anything in the VietPride Thai Nguyen province. I was very surprised and impressed with the event.

They were all young but very brave. I was very busy. I also asked people from the district. They knew nothing about it. LGBT people in the district. They want to work with the group in the future.

I think this. The campaign for the legalisation of same-sex marriage brought many organisations. However, members of the LGBT community have different needs. Some members of trans gender groups, for example, believe that thei r needs. We are not interested in legalising same-sex marriage. As transgender people, we do. However, our primary concerns. We cannot get good jobs because we dress and appear. Every day, some of us are dyin g. Howeve r, no one cares about these needs.

Just before the National Assembly meeting, six research and social institutes. National Assembly. Members of the LGB T community and their families also sent letters. Some of the letters were read out aloud at a meeting in Hanoi. The State shall not recognise marriage rela tions between people of the same sex. The rela tionship of living together as. Vietnam is a very family-oriented society.

Man y societies are, but maybe in Vietnam. LGBT and their relatives have therefore put a lot. Rather than questioning the. Despite the broad public support, the legisl ators failed to reach a consensus during the. November meeting. But the National Assem bly had issued a new decree,.

In Article 48, same-. The MOJ in contrast recently stressed th e legal necessity to accept the reality of same-sex. During a meeting hosted by the Ministry of Justice on. They still have six months to gather public suppor t. Experience shows that the more. The LGBT community should. Despite several promising developments, in Dece mber there appeared to be some.

Rights Day, which was on December The ev ents were cancelled without explanation ,. The press w as silent. Had the LGBT groups crossed a. This illustrates that. Some observers believe that trying to le galise same-sex marriage is not a realistic goal. But it. One inte rnational. In consultation with lawyers, activists campaigne d in the media against the negative. Binh Duong provinces in This campai gn may have contributed to the issuance of.

The success of this campaign can be. The two case studies highlight the stren gths and weaknesses of a heterogeneous group of. Vietnamese-led civil society groups engaging collectiv ely with the law. One of the challenges. In December , government restrictions appeared to hav e. During the same period, we obta ined approval to conduct feedback. With such contradic tory developments it is difficult to predic t the.

In this section, we will reflect on three aspec ts that are important to the achiev ed results and. The first two are important as they p rovide a gateway for the LGBT movement in a politically. LGBT engagement with the law and la w enforcement focuses on advocacy and lobbyi ng for.

This fits with the observations made by a number of. It also fits w ith. In both cases, VietPride organisers depoliti cised the causes and mobilised support by. In the workshop in Ho Chi Minh City, held to present the preliminary findings of the. Likewise, in the Hanoi w orkshop a. We cannot say that this is not politics and we should not easily accept this narrow. It is importan t to let the government know that rights of.

LGBT people are limited because of governmen t policies, because people are not. Politicising the LGBT movement might create new spaces for civil association and. Participants of the workshop in Hanoi also noted that the democracy movemen t is. In contrast, the L GBT movement is small, consisting only of a few.

Silent advocacy and depoliticisation could. However, most people involved in interv iews and discussions agree that depoliticisation is a. Depoliticisation creates space for civil association and engagement in a restrictive legal. Politics in Vietnam is understood narro wly… [T]his ambigu ity is perhaps an. Sexu ality is a political issue and it does. In a context with restricted freedom o f speech, depoliticisation facilitated the mobilisation of a. Depoliticisation also helps to takes issues i nto a technical space.

The revision of the. The campaign for same-sex marriage w as led by a coalition of officially registered and well-. The management structure was a loose alliance, led by highly.

These leaders were able to mobilise. More importantly, this broad. Activists linked LGBT rights with those o f other minorities and social categories tha t. Activists also liaised with parents of LGBT peopl e who were in parent support groups. Publi cly. Famil y members of LGBT people were concerned. They also placed themselves within a communist.

Thus, claiming LGBT issues are no t only human rights-based but in line with. Building a positive image of LGBT people in the m edia was identified as a key strategy to. The groups involved definitely think this has. It is clear that newspapers that have portrayed. Media outlets reported. Howev er, the positive images and stories of mainly y oung,. It is not clear.