METODE ILMIAH DALAM FILSAFAT ILMU EBOOK DOWNLOAD

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Metode Ilmiah (Filsafat Ilmu) - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Sep 2, BAHASAN METODE MEDIA ALOKASI WAKTU DAFTAR BACAAN 8 Menjelaskan terapan filsafat ilmu dalam ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (Ipteks) Kleden, Ignas, , Sikap Ilmiah dan Kritik Kebudayaan,Jakarta: LP3ES 7. Is your theme custom made or did you download it from somewhere?. 10 Jadi, dalam pemikiran kelompok filosof UGM itu, Filsafat Indonesia ialah .. Filsafat Ilmu dikaji oleh Djohansjah dalam bukunya Budaya Ilmiah dan .. Kegunaan metode dalam lapangan filsafat sungguh sangat besar. .. Download pdf.


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Deskripsi Mata Kuliah: Filsafat ilmu menjelaskan tentang sejarah perkembangan ilmu, hubungan filsafat, ilmu dan filsafat ilmu, kedudukan filsafat ilmu dalam perkembangan ilmu, keanekaragaman dan pengelompokan ilmu, landasan penelaahan ilmu ontology, epistemology, logika, dan aksiologi , metode berpikir ilmiah, masalah dan teori kebenaran, dan hubungan antara filsafat, Iptek dan kebudayaan. Dasar logika terdiri dari term, konsep, proposisi, dan inferensi penyimpulan. Dua model penyimpulan deduktif dan induktif serta berbagai sesat pikir dalam logika dan penyimpulan. Mata Kuliah: Filsafat Ilmu the Philosophy of Science 2. Kode Mata Kuliah:

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I mean, what you say is important and everything. Your content is excellent but with images and videos, this website could definitely be one of the greatest in its field. However, what concerning the conclusion? Are you positive about the supply? Semua perintis tersebut sangat membantu dalam mencapai pemahaman yang dalam tentang Filsafat Indonesia.

Semua perintis Filsafat Indonesia tadi mendefinisikan Filsafat Indonesia secara berbeda-beda. Dalam ungkapannya sendiri, Nasroen menjelaskan: Pandangan hidup Indonesia [Filsafat Indonesia- pen.

Jika Filsafat Indonesia hanya berisi ini saja, maka sungguh betul miskinlah tradisi filsafat kita. Tapi, para filosof itu tidak berhenti sampai di situ saja. Mereka kemudian juga mengakui, baik secara implisit maupun eksplisit, bahwa tradisi filsafat sejagat juga turut memberi warna-warni dalam struktur filsafat regional mereka.

Dengan kata-katanya sendiri, Russell berujar: Writers in Arabic showed some originality in mathematics and chemistry—in the latter case, as an incidental result of alchemical researches. Mohammedan civilization in its great days was admirable in the arts and in many technical ways, but it showed no capacity for independent speculation in theoretical manners. Its importance, which must not be underrated, is as a transmitter. Between ancient and modern European civilization, the dark ages intervened.

The Mohammedans and the Byzantines, while lacking the intellectual energy required for innovation, preserved the apparatus of civilization—education, books, and learned leisure.

Both stimulated the West when it emerged from barbarism—the Mohammedans chiefly in the thirteenth century, the Byzantines chiefly in the fifteenth. In each case the stimulus produced new thought better than any produced by the transmitters—in the one case scholasticism, in the other the Renaissance which however had other causes also …12 Pengaruh Filsafat Islam terhadap tradisi Filsafat Barat juga diakui oleh filosof Barat lain, Frederick Mayer.

Averrhoes defended, against Al-Gazzali, the value of philosophical discussion. He held that it could give a spiritual interpretation of the faith and lead to a symbolic explanation of dogmas which otherwise would be accepted in their literal sense.

After his death Arabic philosophy declined, but his theories played an important part in Western scholastic circles. When Japan [in the time of The Meiji Restoration-pen.

At the time, these sprang solely from modern Europe and America, but it was inevitable that the attention of the Japanese would eventually be caught by the glories of the Renaissance and ancient Greek civilization, and more important, that they would encounter Christianity…14 Huang Songjie, seorang filosof Cina, juga turut mengakui pengaruh tradisi Filsafat Barat terhadap struktur Filsafat Cina.

Marxist philosophy, Western philosophy and Chinese traditional philosophy are three independent and yet interrelated philosophical trends in the 20th century Chinese academic and cultural world. I refer to this as the "Great Triangle". Dealing properly with this interrelationship is of great importance for the development of Chinese culture and the modernization of China… Western science and culture spread gradually in China after the Opium War and forcefully challenged traditional Confucianism.

Early in 20th century, with the Revolution of and the May 4th New Culture Movement, traditional Confucianism was attacked intensely by a large number of progressive intellectuals and radical thinkers. During the twenties and thirties of this century, more and more Chinese intellectuals introduced and popularized Western philosophy in China, among which pragmatism was especially influential.

But early in 20th century the greatest impact on Chinese society was the introduction and spread of Marxism. The victory of Marxism is due to the fact that the Chinese communists combined Marxism tactically with Chinese social and revolutionary practice; they made of Marxism an ideological weapon against feudalism and imperialism, leading thereby to the founding of New China.

Kalau kami berbicara tentang kebudayaan Indonesia, kami tidak ingat kepada melap-lap hasil kebudayaan lama sampai berkilat dan untuk dibanggakan,… Revolusi bagi kami ialah penempatan nilai-nilai baru atas nilai-nilai usang yang harus dihancurkan…17 Upaya pengadopsian filsafat asing ke dalam struktur tradisional Indonesia dalam wujud proyek Modernisasi Westernisasi berada pada track yang benar, apabila dimaksudkan untuk menghancurkan sisa-sisa sukuisme dan feodalisme pra-Kemerdekaan, tapi menjadi salah- langkah, apabila ditujukan untuk membuang seluruh heritage filosofis lama.

Mungkin juga ada Tradisi yang elemen-elemennya malah menopang sendi-sendi yang rapuh dari struktur Modernitas. Tradisi yang dimaknai-ulang oleh orang modern tentu bukan lagi tradisi kuno, tapi menjadi suatu Modernitas baru, karena tradisi kuno sudah sejak lama hilang, digantikan oleh Modernitas. Definisi baru Filsafat Indonesia mesti merangkul Tradisi dan Modernitas sekaligus. Tidak boleh ada preferensi yang berlebihan pada salah satunya.

Jika pilihan dijatuhkan pada salah satu dari keduanya, berarti Filsafat Indonesia telah dimiskinkan isinya. Mitologi kuno yang sarat elemen filosofis, sebagai bagian dari Tradisi, setidaknya dapat dijadikan titik-tolak turning point untuk pindah ke khazanah filosofis selanjutnya, jika bukan sebagai pintu gerbang gateway untuk masuk ke alam pikiran Indonesia.

Banyak penulis sejarah filsafat yang sengaja memasukkan kajian mitologis sebagai kajian pembuka dalam bukunya, apalagi jika bukunya memang disusun menurut kronologi. Thomas Kasulis, dalam artikelnya Japanese Philosophy, memulai kajiannya dengan mitologi Jepang kuno. Bahkan, Plato, dalam setiap tulisannya, menggunakan mitologi, baik sebagai bahan-baku raw material filsafatnya maupun sebagai target kritik untuk membangun struktur filosofisnya.

Untuk membuat definisi yang baik dari Filsafat Indonesia, maka dibutuhkan beberapa perbandingan dengan definisi filsafat yang lain. Berdasarkan perbandingan di atas, berarti definisi Filsafat Indonesia dapat dibangun dari 3 segi: Kalau 3 segi ini diterapkan pada definisi Filsafat Indonesia, maka Filsafat Indonesia adalah filsafat yang diproduksi oleh semua orang yang menetap di wilayah yang dinamakan belakangan sebagai Indonesia, yang menggunakan bahasa-bahasa di Indonesia sebagai mediumnya, dan yang isinya kurang-lebih memiliki segi distingtif bila dibandingkan dengan filsafat sejagat lainnya.

Pernyataan bahwa Filsafat Indonesia adalah filsafat yang diproduksi oleh semua orang yang menetap di wilayah Indonesia berimplikasi, bahwa semua orang yang berasal dari kelompok etnis, kelompok ras, atau kelompok religius yang berbeda, asalkan semuanya menetap di Indonesia, maka semuanya filosof Indonesia.

Pernyataan bahwa Filsafat Indonesia adalah filsafat yang menggunakan bahasa-bahasa di Indonesia sebagai medium ekspresi filosofisnya berimplikasi, bahwa semua orang yang menetap di Indonesia, asalkan menggunakan bahasa-bahasa yang hidup di Indonesia sebagai mediumnya, maka semuanya adalah filosof Indonesia.

Untuk sifat ketiga, bahwa Filsafat Indonesia adalah filsafat yang sekurang-kurangnya memiliki segi distingtif dari filsafat sejagat lainnya, harus diberi penjelasan tambahan. Distinctiveness bukanlah suatu keharusan dalam Filsafat Indonesia, sebab, harus diakui, bahwa segi distingtif dalam isi Filsafat Indonesia amatlah sedikit daripada segi adaptifnya. Lebih banyak borrowing nya daripada otentisitasnya. Pinjaman-pinjaman itu, pada saatnya, akan dipulangkannya lagi setelah ia berhasil membangun suatu corak lain, apakah dalam bentuk sintesa dialektis, adaptasi, transformasi, metamorfosis, atau malah rejeksi dan objeksi.

Definisi baru Filsafat Indonesia ini juga berimplikasi pada masalah kapan lahirnya kajian Filsafat Indonesia. Jika dimaksud sebagai suatu nama cabang filsafat yang dikaji filosof Indonesia, yang membedakannya dari kajian Filsafat Barat dan Filsafat Asia lainnya, maka Filsafat Indonesia lahir pada dekade an. Tapi, jika dimaksud sebagai aktivitas berpikir logis-rasional yang diproduksi orang Indonesia, maka Filsafat Indonesia lahir bukan sejak dekade itu, tapi malahan sejak local genius primitif memproduksi mitologi filosofis, yang diperkirakan para sejarawan berproduksi sejak era neolitik sekitar SM, yang jejak-jejaknya masih dapat ditelusuri hingga sekarang dalam kebudayaan suku Sakuddei di Kepulauan Mentawai Sumatera Barat , suku Atoni di Timor Timur, suku Marind-Anim di Papua Irian Barat , juga di suku Minangkabau, Jawa, Nias, Batak, dan lain-lain.

Di sini penulis membagi Filsafat Indonesia ke dalam 6 mazhab besar, berdasarkan pada sumber-sumber inspirasinya: Di era neolitikum, sekitar tahun — SM, penduduk Indonesia asli telah membentuk komunitas berupa desa-desa kecil yang telah mengenal sistem pertanian, sistem irigasi sederhana, sistem peternakan, pembuatan perahu, sistem pelayaran sederhana, dan seni bertenun.

Mitologi-mitologi filosofis yang diproduksi suku-suku etnis Indonesia kini sudah banyak yang dibukukan, sehingga para peneliti Filsafat Indonesia kini dapat membacanya, baik dalam Bahasa Indonesia maupun dalam bahasa asing. Zoetmulder mengkaji Filsafat Etnik Jawa dari segi kesusastraannya dalam buku Kalangwan: Pantheisme dan Monisme dalam Sastra Suluk Jawa. Nian S. Djoemena mengkaji Filsafat Etnik Jawa dari tradisi luriknya dalam buku Lurik: Garis-garis Bertuah The Magic Stripes.

Suwardi Endraswara membahas Filsafat Hidup yang dipahami khas orang Jawa dalam karyanya Filsafat Hidup Jawa, dan masih banyak lagi filosof Indonesia yang mengkaji Filsafat Etnik, bahkan hingga detik ini.

Istilah ini jelas saja diberikan oleh bangsa Barat untuk bangsa Timur. Pada kenyataannya, tidak semua bangsa Timur filsafatnya dikenal baik oleh bangsa Barat. Tao Teh Ching bagi Orang Modern. Sinar Harapan, memuat dengan jenial ikhtisar sejarah filsafat politik Cina Modern yang dipahami filosof Indonesia dari etnik Cina. Filsafat ini adalah hasil eksperimen filosofis dari beberapa filosof kreatif dari Indonesia, yang menghasilkan corak filosofis yang menarik dan orisinil.

Sambhara Suryawarana, seorang penulis kitab suci Buddhisme yang hidup di kerajaan Medang Hindu di sekitar tahun , memuji-muji raja Sindok yang Hinduist di dalam kitab suci Buddhist yang dikarangnya, Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan. Mpu Prapanca menulis buku Negarakertagama dan Ramayana Kakawin.

Ramayana Kakawin ialah terjemahan epik Hindu-India yang disesuaikan dengan alam pikiran Indonesia primitif, sementara Negarakertagama ialah karya puisi epik berbahasa Jawa Kuno yang menjelaskan filsafat yang dianut Kertanagara , seorang raja terbesar dari Dinasti Singhasari, yang memadukan filsafat Siwaisme-Hindu dengan Buddhisme. Sedangkan Mpu Tantular, seorang pengarang yang hidup di masa pemerintahan Hayam Wuruk , menulis buku Sutasoma, yang memadukan filsafat Buddhisme dengan Syiwaisme-Hindu.

Raja Dharmawangsa pernah memerintahkan penerjemahan Mahabharata ke bahasa Jawa Kuno—tindakan yang memungkinkan masuknya alam pikiran primitif Jawa ke dalam epik Hinduisme-India itu. Juga raja Jayabaya , yang memerintahkan penyaduran Bharatayudha versi India menjadi versi Jawa, untuk menggambarkan perang saudara antara Jayabaya sebagai Pandawa dengan sepupunya Jenggala sebagai Kurawa.

Bahkan, raja Indra dari Sailendra membangun Candi Borobudur yang bertingkat 9, untuk memuja arwah 9 keluarga moyangnya dalam perjalanan mereka menuju Nirvana. Dari survei, penulis hanya menemukan 2 karya yang ditulis filosof Indonesia mengenai cabang filsafat ini: Sekarang kajian Western Philosophy dipecah-pecah menjadi banyak cabang, seperti Analytic Philosophy, Continental Philosophy, German Philosophy, dan lain-lain.

Bentuk pemerintahan Republik, konstitusi negara modern, lembaga perwakilan rakyat, distribusi kekuasaan yang sejalan dengan Trias Politica, partai politik, dan ideologi partai tersebut sungguh-sungguh cerminan pengaruh alam pikiran Barat. Materialisme, Dialektika, Logika dan D. Semaoen mengkaji organisasi buruh komunis dalam bukunya Toentoenan Kaoem Boeroeh. Juga oleh Wajid Anwar L. Filsafat Etika dikaji oleh K. Juga dikaji oleh W. Poespoprodjo dalam bukunya Filsafat Moral, dan I.

Poedjawijatna dalam bukunya Etika Filsafat Tingkah Laku. Filsafat Epistemologi Barat dikaji SJ. Ghozi Badrie dalam karyanya Filsafat Umum: Aspek Epistemologi. Filsafat Logika dikaji oleh I.

Poedjawijatna dalam karyanya Logika: Apakah Hukum itu? Juga oleh Moertono dalam bukunya Filsafat Hukum: Metodik Penelitian Ilmu Desisi. Filsafat Politik dikaji oleh J. Filsafat Sejarah dikaji oleh beberapa filosof, seperti H. Potensi Penanganan Masalah. Filsafat Sastra dan Budaya juga dikaji satu-satunya oleh FX. Mudji Sutrisno dalam karyanya Filsafat Sastra dan Budaya.

Filsafat Ekonomi juga dikaji satu-satunya oleh Save M. Demikian pula Filsafat Administrasi yang dikaji hanya oleh Sondang P. Siagian dalam buku Filsafat Administrasi. Cabang filsafat ini merupakan genre filosofis yang corak Baratnya telah sejauh mungkin dirubah, untuk disesuaikan dengan situasi historis kongkrit di Indonesia. Utami Munandar. Soekarno mengkaji komunitas Proletar dari Filsafat Komunisme untuk diterapkan pada situasi kongkrit Indonesia, sebagaimana terlihat dalam tulisan-tulisannya yang dikumpulkan dan diterbitkan oleh Penerbit Grasindo dengan judul Bung Karno tentang Marhaen.

Adaptasionisme juga dilakukan Moh. Hatta, ketika ia berbicara tentang demokrasi Barat modern untuk diterapkan dalam situasi kongkrit Indonesia dalam bukunya Mohammad Hatta: Juga pengkajian demokrasi Barat yang diterapkan Sjahrir dalam situasi kongkrit Indonesia dalam karyanya Pemikiran Politik Sjahrir. Filsafat Feminisme yang diterapkan dalam mengkaji kaum wanita Indonesia dilakukan oleh Soekarno dalam bukunya Sarinah: Kisah Perempuan Korban Patriarki.

Keterkaitan Usaha Partisipasi v. Permadi dalam bukunya Pengantar Ilmu Tasawwuf, M. Solichin dalam karyanya Kamus Tasawuf, Sukardi Kd. Tentang Kebudayaan.

Sedangkan Filsafat Politik Islam dikaji oleh A. Sedangkan Filsafat Pembebasan Liberasionisme dikaji oleh Muh. Juga oleh Fachrizal A.

Halim dalam karyanya Beragama dalam Belenggu Kapitalisme. Sedjarah dan Perkembangannya dalam Dunia Internasional, H. Bakker dalam karyanya yang klasik Pengantar Filsafat Islam. Munir dalam bukunya Aliran Modern dalam Islam, H. Walaupun belum layak dianggap sebagai suatu mazhab filsafat, pandangan mereka mulai diterima luas oleh masyarakat Islam Indonesia. Hartono Ahmad Jaiz dapat dimasukkan dalam mazhab ini. Filsafat Kristen Seperti Filsafat Islam, Filsafat Kristen Christian Philosophy adalah filsafat yang lahir di wilayah kuasa Kristen dan diproduksi oleh komunitas religius Kristen yang menetap di wilayah itu.

Hanafi dalam bukunya Filsafat Skolastik. Hardawiryana dalam bukunya Cara Baru Menggereja di Indonesia: Umat Kristen Mempribumi. Banawiratma, A. Suryawasita, I. Suharyo, C. Putranta, R. Hardawiryana, AL. Purwahadiwardaya, TH. Sumartana, Greg Soetomo, dan Budi Purnomo. Darmawijaya dalam bukunya Perempuan dalam Perjanjian Lama. Kritik terhadap Soehartoisme sudah mulai merebak sejak dasawarsa an dari kampus ITB Bandung dan Peristiwa Malari di Jakarta , tapi semua kritikan itu tidak didengar.

Sejak dasawarsa an menjelang lengser Soeharto, kembali kritikan dilancarkan oleh beberapa filsuf baru. Merekalah cikal-bakal tokoh filsafat yang kemudian dinamakan filsafat paska-Soeharto. Menggugat Dakwaan Subversif. Pius Lustrilanang. Setelah Soeharto lengser, rupanya Soehartoisme tidak bersama-sama tumbang. Soehartoisme masih bertahan, beradaptasi dengan situasi Indonesia baru, bahkan hingga saat ini.

Isme-Isme dalam Filsafat Indonesia S ebelum menentukan isme-isme apa saja yang dapat dibuat dalam semesta Filsafat Indonesia, alangkah baiknya jika mengkaji lebih dulu tentang bagaimana suatu isme dalam filsafat dibuat. Ada 2 cara membuat kategori isme yang selama ini dipakai peneliti filsafat: Misalnya, dalam teks-teks Plato rupanya ditemukan doktrin sangat penting tentang idea, sehingga peneliti filsafat menyebut ajaran Plato yang amat penting itu dengan sebutan idealism.

Begitu pula dengan ajaran penting Hegel tentang Idea yang darinya berasal sebutan idealism. Perbedaan kedua cara penyebutan isme itu sangat berpengaruh pada fondasi filsafat yang dibangun. Apakah penyebutan isme-isme dalam struktur Filsafat Barat dapat diterapkan pada struktur Filsafat Indonesia?

Ada 2 kemungkinan. Tan Malaka dan D.

Aidit, karena itu, dapat disebut sebagai filosof Marxist. Tapi, pada galibnya, filosof-filosof Indonesia memiliki doktrin-doktrin khas, yang berbeda dari yang biasa ditemukan dalam teks-teks Filsafat Barat.

Jadi, peneliti filsafat boleh saja meminjam kategorisasi isme Barat atau boleh pula membuat kategorisasinya sendiri, sesuai dengan tema-tema yang diangkat oleh seorang filosof di negaranya. Kedua cara pembuatan isme tadi akan kita terapkan pada struktur Filsafat Indonesia. Cara 1 penulis terapkan ketika membuat isme-isme seperti Soekarnoisme dan Soehartoisme. Untuk maksud pengantar, disini akan dibahas sedikit tentang isme-isme dalam Filsafat Indonesia.

Artinya, suatu filsafat digabungkan dengan filsafat lainnya untuk membentuk struktur filsafat yang baru. Biasanya, filsafat-filsafat yang dicampur-baur itu berlawanan sifatnya, berbeda isinya, kontras nuansanya.

Contoh sintesisme yang paling populer di mata sejarawan filsafat ialah apa yang dilakukan Mpu Prapanca , seorang filosof yang hidup di masa pemerintahan Kertanegara dari Dinasti Singhasari. Cara yang sama juga ditempuh oleh Mpu Tantular, seorang filosof yang hidup di masa pemerintahan Hayam Wuruk , yang menulis buku Sutasoma, di dalamnya ia berhasil memadukan filsafat Buddhisme dengan Syiwaisme-Hindu.

Perpaduan dua filsafat India yang amat berbeda itu—Buddhisme justru lahir di India sebagai reaksi negatif terhadap Hinduisme—oleh filosof-filosof Indonesia melahirkan corak filsafat yang baru, yang terkenal sebagai filsafat Tantrayana. Soekarno, seorang pendiri Republik kita, juga seorang sintesist. Dia mencoba menyintesa tiga aliran filsafat yang amat bertolak-belakang: Nurcholish Madjid, seorang filosof Islam, juga seorang sintesist.

Beliau mencoba menyintesa tiga aliran filsafat yang berbeda: Berbeda dengan Soekarno, Nurcholish sangat berhasil, karena amat didukung penguasa saat itu. Artinya, suatu filsafat diubah sedemikian rupa, sehingga menjadi sesuai dengan situasi Iindonesia dan dapat digunakan dalam konteks Indonesia.

Biasanya, yang disesuaikan dengan kondisi dan situasi Indonesia adalah filsafat-filsafat asing, bukan filsafat asli Indonesia sendiri. Filosof yang tergolong isme ini umumnya berasumsi bahwa segala produksi filsafat bersifat lokal, regional, dan partikular; tidak ada filsafat yang universall secara absolut.

Karena itu pula, kebenaran filsafat tidak pernah universal-absolut. Menurut logika mereka, misalnya, Marxisme yang lahir dari sejarah lokal Barat tidak bisa diterapkan atau dicangkok begitu saja pada sejarah kongkrit Indonesia, karena kedua area itu memiliki struktur budaya dan peradaban yang berbeda.

Marxisme yang hendak dibangun akar-akarnya di Indonesia harus diubah sedemikian rupa, sehingga sesuai dengan alam Indonesia. Utami Munandar, D. Aidit, dan lain-lain adalah contoh dari filosof adaptasionist yang mengadaptasikan Filsafat Barat ke dalam situasi kongkrit Indonesia.

Nasi goreng adalah makanan asli tradisional yang biasanya digoreng dengan minyak kelapa. Namun, jika margarin yang berasal dari Belanda dapat membuat nasi goreng itu bertambah enak, maka tak ada alasan seseorang harus menolak penggunaan margarin itu, selama yang menggorengnya ialah orang Indonesia sendiri. Begitu pula dengan H. Lamaisme Isme ini bertolak dari pandangan, bahwa segala tradisi lama, tradisi primordial, dan tradisi asli Indonesia adalah tradisi yang harus dilestarikan, sebab dalam tradisi itulah terletak asal dan tujuan keberadaan manusia Indonesia, alpha dan omega kehidupan manusia Indonesia, sangkan dan paran dari penciptaan manusia Indonesia.

Semua filosof etnik Indonesia seperti M. Nasroen, Sunoto, R. Pramono Jakob Sumardjo, P. Lamaisme menjadi trend kembali di era Orde Baru, karena filosof lamaist menemukan borok-borok modernisasi Barat sekuler yang diusulkan filosof baruist. Semua filosof agama, baik dari Islam, Katolik, Protestantisme, Buddhisme, Hinduisme, dan Konfusianisme, yang menolak pembaruan religious reforms dalam dogmatika tradisionalnya juga dapat masuk dalam kelompok lamaisme ini.

Baruisme Isme ini adalah lawan dari lamaisme. Apa yang hendak dilestarikan oleh lamaisme akan diserang dan dibatalkan oleh baruisme, karena ia bertolak pada anggapan bahwa segala tradisi lama adalah tradisi yang tidak membawa kepada kemajuan, tradisi usang yang tidak lagi relevan dengan zaman yang terus berubah, atau tradisi dekaden yang apabila tetap dilestarikan akan membuat Indonesia tidak pernah maju. Isme ini sangat anti dengan filsafat etnik asli, karena, dalam logika tokoh-tokohnya, filsafat etnik masih melestarikan feudalisme dan sukuisme yang justru dianggap sebagai musuh kebudayaan baru Indonesia.

Tan Malaka, dalam bukunya Massa Actie, amat mencela tradisi lama dan mengusulkan tradisi baru yang diambil dari tradisi Barat.

Begitu pula halnya dengan Sutan Takdir. Sejak polemiknya yang terkenal di era an dengan Ki Hajar Dewantara hingga tulisan-tulisannya sampai beliau wafat, Sutan Takdir secara konsisten mengutuk tradisi lama dan mengusulkan tradisi baru Barat sebagai gantinya.

Nurcholish, lantas, mengusulkan desakralisasi atau sekularisasi, yang pada intinya merupakan pemutusan langsung direct shift dan penolakan tegas untuk melestarikan Masyumisme kuno. Sebagai gantinya, Nurcholish menciptakan prinsip baru yang amat revolusioner di era an, Islam, Yes!

Partai Islam, No! Terpimpinisme bertolak dari pandangan bahwa rakyat Indonesia masih membutuhkan figur seorang pemimpin yang dapat mendidik mereka, melindungi mereka, menunjuki mereka, dan memandu mereka untuk menuju kemajuan.

Soeharto dapat pula dimasukkan ke dalam filosof terpimpinist ini. Lalu pertanyaannya kemudian adalah apakah sejarawan filsafat Indonesia juga harus mengikuti pembagian periode seperti itu?

Jika memang harus mengikuti periodisasi Barat dan Cina itu, kapankah periode Klasik dari Filsafat Indonesia itu? Bisa saja dikatakan bahwa periode Klasik dari Filsafat Indonesia adalah periode yang dihitung sejak era neolitik sekitar SM hingga awal abad 19 M, lalu periode Modern sejak awal abad 19 M hingga era Soeharto lengser, dan periode Kontemporer sejak Soeharto lengser hingga detik ini Sekilas nampaknya periodisasi tadi tidak problematik, tapi jika ditelaah lebih dalam mengandung banyak persoalan.

Persoalan-persoalan yang muncul ialah seperti: Apakah perbedaan periode itu didasarkan pada perbedaan point of concern pusat perhatian yang dikaji filosof di era tertentu?

Banyaknya persoalan yang muncul dengan mengikuti periodisasi ala Barat dan Cina menunjukkan, bahwa model periodisasi seperti itu tidak tepat untuk sejarah Filsafat Indonesia. Harus dicari model periodisasi lain yang dapat memuat kurang-lebih segala filsafat yang pernah diproduksi sejak era neolitikum hingga sekarang. Di bawah ini akan diajukan 2 model periodisasi yang mungkin lebih cocok untuk penulisan sejarah Filsafat Indonesia. Periodisasi Berdasarkan Interaksi Budaya Periodisasi Filsafat Indonesia dapat dibuat berdasarkan datangnya budaya-budaya asing yang berinteraksi dengan budaya asli Indonesia, dengan cara membuat kronologi historis dan menyebutkan dari budaya dunia mana sumber filosofis itu berasal-mula.

Periode Etnik dimulai ketika filsafat etnik asli Indonesia masih dipeluk dan dipraktekkan oleh orang Indonesia sebelum kedatangan filsafat asing. Filsafat Indonesia pada periode Etnik, misalnya, berisi mitologi filosofis, pepatah-petitih, peribahasa, hukum adat, dan segala yang asli dalam filsafat-filsafat etnik Indonesia.

Periodisasi Berdasarkan Kejadian Historis Penting Periodisasi Filsafat Indonesia juga dapat dibuat berdasarkan kejadian-kejadian penting dalam perjalanan sejarah Indonesia, seperti periode pra-Kemerdekaan, periode Kemerdekaan, periode Soekarno, periode Soeharto, dan periode paska-Soeharto. Yang termasuk dalam periode pra-Kemerdekaan ialah filsafat-filsafat mitologi etnik asli Indonesia, filsafat adat etnik Indonesia, filsafat Konfusianisme, filsafat Hinduisme dan Buddhisme, filsafat Tantrayana, filsafat Islam-Arab, filsafat Sufisme Persia, dan filsafat Pencerahan Barat.

Sedangkan filsafat-filsafat yang masuk dalam periode Kemerdekaan ialah filsafat Modernisme Islam, filsafat Marxisme-Leninisme, filsafat Maoisme, filsafat Sosialisme Demokrat, dan filsafat Demokrasi. Periode Soeharto dimulai ketika filsafat Modenisasi dan Developmentalisme didewa-dewakan, kemudian filsafat Pancasila, filsafat Ekonomi Pancasila, filsafat Kebatinan, filsafat sekularisme yang sedang marak.

Periode paska-Soeharto dimulai ketika kritik terhadap filsafat Developmentalisme marak dan filsuf mencari alternatif pada filsafat-filsafat lain seperti Liberasionisme, Transformatifisme, Reformisme, dan Revolusionisme. Kegunaan metode dalam lapangan filsafat sungguh sangat besar. Filsafat adalah realitas yang terus bergerak abadi dan berseliweran di depan mata seorang filosof, karena sejarah waktu dan ruang terus berubah abadi.

Hanya metodelah yang mampu membuat still photo dari realitas filsafat yang bergerak abadi itu. Banyak sekali metode yang dapat digunakan untuk memahami gejala filsafat di Indonesia, mulai dari yang imported hingga yang dikembangkan sendiri di tanah-air. Di bawah ini hanya sekadar contoh dari beberapa metode pengkajian filsafat yang telah dilakukan oleh beberapa pengkaji Filsafat Indonesia.

Metode Survival Economy Metode ini mengingatkan kita pada dikotomi superstructure-infrastructure dalam Marxisme. Marx pernah berpendapat bahwa produksi budaya superstructure —mencakup agama, seni, dan filsafat—berjalan bersamaan dengan jenis produksi ekonomis infrastructure.

Bahkan, infrastructurelah yang menentukan corak superstructure. Begitupula dengan mode of production kapitalisme, yang melahirkan budaya kapitalistik. Menurut Jakob, filsafat suatu masyarakat di Indonesia tergantung pada cara masyarakat itu bertahan hidup survive ; cara masyarakat itu memanfaatkan alam sekitarnya demi kelangsungan hidup komunalnya. Jika masyarakat itu dapat bertahan hidup dengan cara bersawah, maka filsafat yang diproduksi akan berhubungan dengan sawah konsep kesuburan, konsep hari baik, konsep musim baik, konsep hidup sesuai alam, dll.

Metode Historis Metode ini adalah metode yang paling kuno untuk mengkaji fenomena kemanusiaan, termasuk fenomena filsafat. Filsafat Indonesia pertama-tama ditaruh dalam bingkai sejarah, lalu diurai dalam suatu kronologi, kemudian dalam kronologi itu dimasukkan nama-nama tokoh Filsafat Indonesia. Titik-tolak Ferry ialah pandangan bahwa filsafat—dimanapun dan kapanpun ia diproduksi— merupakan produk sejarah, dan karena itu, maka konteks sejarah yang melingkari filsafat itu harus ditemukan jika filsafat hendak dipahami secara lebih baik.

Filsafat Marxisme, misalnya, akan lebih baik dipahami jika ditemukan konteks historis yang melingkari produksi Marxisme itu: Realitas politik apa di era Marx dan Engels hidup yang mendorong mereka membangun classless society? Jika semua pertanyaan itu dapat ditemukan jawabannya lewat kajian historis, maka filsafat Marxisme dapat dipahami secara lebih dalam. Metode Komparasi dan Kontras Cara lain untuk mengkaji Filsafat Indonesia ialah dengan cara mencari perbedaan dan kesamaan di antara filsafat-filsafat sejagat yang ada, lalu perbedaannya ditunjukkan, sehingga nampak fitur distingtif dari Filsafat Indonesia.

Nasroen menggunakan metode perbandingan dan kontras untuk menunjukkan segi-segi berbeda dari Filsafat Indonesia yang membedakannya dari filsafat-filsafat sejagat lainnya dalam karyanya Falsafah Indonesia. Ia membandingkan tradisi Filsafat Barat, Filsafat Timur, dan Filsafat Indonesia, lalu berkesimpulan bahwa Filsafat Indonesia amat berbeda dari dua filsafat lainnya karena mengajarkan ajaran-ajaran asli tentang mupakat, pantun-pantun, Pancasila, hukum adat, ketuhanan, gotong-royong, dan kekeluargaan.