ecology. Eugene P. Odum. Ailllilid Ftlllll(i:llioll l'r()[l's,or of Zoology. Ulljl'cr" jtl' of C(' llr,fja . the present attempt to keep the subject of ecology up to date. Eugene P Odum; Gary W Barrett. Odum, Eugene P. (Eugene Pleasants), Add tags for "Fundamentals of ecology". Odum considered one of his most important contribu- tions, perhaps the one for which he is best known, the book entitled Fundamentals of Ecology. Although Sir .
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Eugene P. Odum has 16 books on Goodreads with ratings. Eugene P. Odum's most popular book is Fundamentals of Ecology. Odum Fundamentals of Ecology - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt ) or read online for free. Odum PDF - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Odumpdf.
Odum pdf H. Page 1. Odum, E. Fundamentals of Ecology. Odum Ecological Engineering 20
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Odum Fundamentals of Ecology
Mew of the ecospherefrom "outside the boxl' ps, 1n- lry,. As long as the life- rlL support seruicesare consideredfree, they have no value in current market systems of seeH. Odum and E.
P Odum The writings of Hippocrates,Aristotle, and he other philosophersol ancient Greececlearly contain referencesto ecologicaltopics. Be- ies fore this, during a biological renaissancein the eighteenthand nineteenthcenturies,.
For example,in the early s,Antoni van Leeuwenhoek,best known as a I premier microscopist,also pioneeredthe study of food chains and population regu- Iation, and the writings of the English botanist Richard Bradley revealedhis under- standing of biological productivity.
All three of thesesubjectsare important areasof modern ecology. As a recognized,distinct field ofscience,ecologydatesfrom about , but only in the past few decadeshas the word becomepart of the generalvocabulary.
At first, the field was rather sharply divided along taxonomic lines such asplant ecologyand animal ecologl , but the biotic community concept of Frederick E. Clementsand Victor E. Shelford,the food chain and material cycling conceptsof Ra1'rnondLinde- man and G. Evelyn Hutchinson, and the whole iake studles o[ Edward A.
Birge and ChauncyJuday,amongothers,helped establishbasictheory for a unified 6eld ofgen- eral ecology. The work of thesepioneerswill be cited often in subsequentchapters. What can best be describedas a worldwide environmentalawarenessmovement burst upon the sceneduing two years, lo , as astronautstook the first photographsof Earth as seen from outer space.
For the first time in human history, dy we were able to seeEanh as a whole and to realizehow alone and fragile Earth hov- ers in space Fig. The swere frequently referred to as the "decade of the enyironment,"initiated by the first "Earth Day" on 22 April Then, in the s and s, environmental issueswere pushed into the political background by concerns for human relations-problems such as crime, the cold war, govern- ment budgets,and welfare.
As we enter the early stagesof the twenty-first century, environmental concelns are again coming to rhe forefront becausehuman abuseo[ Earth continuesto escalate. The increasein public attention had a profound effecton academicecology.
Be- fore the s, ecologywas viewed largely as a subdiscipline of bioiogy. Ecologisrs were staffedin biology depanmenrc,and ecologycourseswere generallyfound only in the biological sciencecurricula. Although ecology remains strongly rooted in bi- ology, it has emergedfrom biologr as an essemiallynew, inregrarivediscipline thar links physical and biological processesand forms a bridge berweenrhe natural sci- encesand the social sciences E.
Most collegesnow offer campus- wide coursesand haveseparatemajors,departments,schools,centers,or inslitutes of ecology. While the scope of ecology is expanding, the study of how individual or- ganismsand speciesinterfaceand useresourcesintensifies. The multilevel approach, as outlined in the next section,brings together "evolutionary" and "systems"think- ing, two approachesthat have tended to divide the field in recentyears.
Hierarchy means "an arrangementinto a graded setes" Merriam-Webster's CollegieteDicfionary,10th edition, s.
Inter- action with the physical environment energy and matter at each level produces characteristicfunctional systems. A system, accordingto a standarddefrmuon, con- sists of "regularly interacting and interdependent components forming a unified.
Figure Ecological levels-ot-organization the interaction spectrumemphasizing of living biotic and nonliving abiotic components. Organization Hierarchy 5. Ecologicallevels- Energetics tal of-organization hierarchy;seven Evolution Behavior de transcending processesor lunc- Development Diversity he tions are depicted as vertical componentsof elevenintegra- Regulation Integration rd tive levelsof organization afier Barrettet al.
Systems containing living Giotic and nonliving abioric componentsconstirure biosrstems, d ranging from genetic systemsto ecologicalsysrems Fig.
Ecologyis largely,bur not entirely,concernedwith the systemlevelsbeyond that of the organism Figs. Likewise,cornmunity, in rhe ecologicalsense sometimes deslgnatedas "biotic community" , includes all the populations occupying a given area. Biocoenosis andbiogeocoenosis lireralt,..
Figure 1. Failureto recognize as op- thisdifferencein t Ecosystems feedback maantaanjng pulsingstates cyberneticshas resultedin muchconfusionaboutthe bal- anceof nature. I Molecules I Atoms. A wctershedis a convenientlandscapeJevelunit for large-scalestudy and managementbecauseit usually has identifiable natural boundaries. Biomeis a term in wide use for a largeregionalor subcontinentalsystemcharacterizedby a ma- jor vegetationt?
A reglonis a large geologicalor political area that may contain more than one biome-for ex- ample, the regionsof the Midwest, the AppalachianMountains, or the PacificCoast. The largestand most nearly self-sufficientbiological sysremis ofren designatedasrhe ecosphere, which includes all the living organismsof Earth interacting with the physicalenvironmentasa whole to maintain a self-adjusting,looselycontrolledpuls- ing state more about the concept of "pulsing state"Iater in this chapter.
Hierarchicaltheory providesa convenientframework for subdividing and exam- ining complex situationsor extensivegradients,but it is more thanjust a useful rank- order classification. More than 50 yearsago,Novikoff poirued out that rhereis both continu- ity and discontinuity in the evolurion of the universe.
Developmentmay be viewed as continuous becauseit involvesnever-endingchange,but it is also drsconLtnuous becauseit passesrhrough a seriesof different levelsof orqanizarion. Becauseeach level in the levels-of-organizationspectrum is ,.
Similarly, the community cannot exist wirhour rhe cyclinq of materialsand the flow of energyin rhe ecosysrem. This argumenris applicablet"orhe previously discussed mistaken notion that human civilization can exist separatelyfrom the natural world.
It is very rmporrantto emphasizethar hierarchiesin natureare nested-Lharts, each level is made up of groups of lower-level unirs populations are composedof groups of organisms,for example. For more on hierarchrcaltheory, seeT. Allen and Starr ,O'Neill et al. Another way to expressrhe sameconcept rs nonreducibie propeny- l- that is, a property ofthe whole not reducibleto the sum ofrhe propeniesof the parts.
LE Two examples,one from the physical realm and one from rhe ecologicalrealm, te will sufficeto illusrrate emergentproperries. When hydrogen and oxygen are com- t- bined in a certain molecular configuration, water is formed-a liquid wirh proper- ties utterly different from those of its gaseouscomponents. When certain algaeand l- coelenterateanimals evolvetogetherto produce a coral, an efficientnutrientiycling - mechanismis createdthat enablesthe comblned system to maintain a high rate of l- productivity in watercwith a very low nutrient content.
Salt suggestedthat a distinction be made betweenemergempropeties, as defined previously,and collective properties, which are summationsof the behav- ior of components. Both are propertiesof the whole, but the collectivepropertiesdo not lnvolve new or unique characteristicsresuking from the functioning of the whole lniL Birth rateis an exampleof a population level collectiveproperty, as it is merely a sum of the individual births in a designaiedtime period, expressedas a lraction or percentof the total number of individuals in the population.
New propertiesemerge becausethe componentsinteract, not becausethe basic nature of the componentsis changed. Partsare not "melted down," as it were, but integratedto produce unique new properties. Theoretically,when hierarchiesare decomposedto theirvarious levelsoIsubsysrems, the latter can still interac[ and reorganizeto achievea higher level of complexity.
Someattributes,obviously,becomemore complex and variableas one proceeds to higher levelsof organization,but often other attributesbecomelesscomplex and lessvariableas one goesfrom the smaller to the larger unit.
Odum 1971 PDF
Becausefeedbackmech- anisms checksand balances,forcesand counterforces operatethroughout, the am- plitude ol oscillations tends to be reduced as smaller units function within larger units. Statistically,the va ance of the whole system level property is less than the sum of the varianceof the parts.
For example,the rate of photosynthesisof a foresr community is lessvariablethan that of individual leavesor treeswithin the commu- nity, becausewhen one component siows down, another component may speedup to compensate. When one considersboth the emergentpropenies and the increasing homeostasisthat develop at each level, not all component parts must be known be- fore the whole can be understood.
This is an important point, becausesome contend that it is uselessto try to work on complex populations and communitieswhen the smaller units are not yet fully understood. Quite the contrary, one may begin study at any point in the spectrum, provided that adjacentlevels, as well as the level in question,are considered,because,as alreadynoted, some attributes are predictable from parts collectiveproperties ,but others are no[ emergentproperties. Formore on emergenlproperties,seef.
AIIen and Starr ,T.
Allen and Hoekstra ,and Ahl and Allen Each biosystemlevel has emergentproperties and reduced varianceas well as a summation of attributes of its subsystemcomponents. The folk wisdom about the forest being more than just a collection of treesis, indeed, a first working principle of ecology. Although the philosophy of sciencehas alwaysbeenholistic in seekingto understandphenomenaasa whole, in recentyearsthe practiceof sciencehasbecome increasinglyreductionist in seekingto understand phenomenaby detailed study of smallerand smaller componenls.
The law of diminishing retums may very well be involved here, as excessiveellort in any one direction eventuallynecessitates taking the other or another direction. For example,researchat the cellular and mo- lecular levelshas establisheda firm basis for the future cure and prevention of can- as cersat the level of the organism.
However,celllevel sciencewiil contribute very little to the well-being or survival of human civilization if we understandthe higher levels lc-t of organization so inadequatelythat we can hnd no solutions to population over- rle growth, pollution, and other forms ofsocietal and environmentaldisorders. Fundamentals of Ecology. Odum Ecological Engineering 20 Was subsequently revised Odum Fundamentals of Ecology 3rd edition.
Fundamentals of ecology (eBook, ) [sidi-its.info]
Odum, H. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Odum and the Origins and Limits of American Agroecology.
Article first published online: The simple community parameters are reduced to a single number using the. Or as Odum dened it: The import of. Today, ecosystems are generally defined as any unit. Odum , p. Odum accepts Grinnells later habitat niche. ODUM In late winter the. Much less is known about the degree of heterotrophy in terrestrial ecosystems.
But one must largely guess what. Lotkas principle as the maximum power principle, stating it as systems prevail that develop designs.
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